Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health: Volume 23, Number 1, Jan 2016 Editorial
|1. Editorial, Wilfred A. Cassell, page 1.
If all goes well with my aging body, in about four months after publication of this issue of our SIS journal I will turn 82 years old age. As I prepare this editorial, I still am living in Victoria Canada where frequently I go to Butchard Gardens. There I meditate, receive renewal and spiritual healing from the magical, mystical experience of incredibly beautiful Nature images. In that peaceful setting there are vast seas of breeze blown moving colorful flowers and magnificent towering trees - .many of which in October are proudly dressed in their bright fall colors. WHEN I SIT WITH MY LOVING GOLDEN RETREIVER "MAGGIE", HIDDEN FROM THE CROWDS peering into a hidden reflection pool I truly feel ".God's Love". With this spiritual support I then am more able to contemplate the imminent reality of my aging body's DEATH.
In 1960 when I was in my psychiatric residency I benefited from the intellectually stimulating lectures of a professor of anthropology, Ernest Becker. He won the Pulitzer book prize for publishing "THE DENIAL of DEATH". The theme essentially was that most people cope with their personal fears of dying by employing the mental mechanism of Denial. In his classes he tended to avoid other stress reducing defensive techniques such as religious dogma, humor etc.
I would like to begin with the following statement of a comedian about his own death as follows: "DEATH DOESN'T BOTHER ME...I JUST DON'T WANT TO BE THERE WHEN IT HAPPENS!"
"I now invite each serious thinking reader to contemplate how a woman who was a remote public health nurse in Manitoba Canada assisted dying people in her professional role" Her interview while administering SIS 62 images Video is given ahead in this issue of the SIS Journal and hope it will serve as SPIRITUAL STIMULATOR during therapeutic intervention.
2. A SIS-II Projective Case Study of Becker’s Concept “Denial of Death” Wilfred A. Cassell and Bankey L. Dubey, pages 2-11.
“Everyone is going to die, it doesn’t bother me – I just don’t want to be there when it happens!” – Woody Allen. People worldwide face their own ultimate mortality with a wide range of culturally/emotionally colored reactions. Like the comedian Woody Allen, some use humor to defend against potentially disturbing feelings when contemplating the ultimate demise of the anatomical structure in which they locate their sense of self, or “Body Ego”
Yet ultimately as one ages, Death Dysphoria tends to surface in daytime conscious awareness, as well as sometimes directly or symbolically affect charged dreams. A central portion of the dogma proposed by theologians of the world’s great religions consist of “so-called reality” historical facts. For true believers, these may provide emotional comfort by claiming death overcoming miracles that purport to overcome “The sting of death”! In 1959 one of the authors (Cassell) had the opportunity of attending lectures by an anthropologist Ernest Becker based upon his Pulitzer Prize winning book “The Denial of Death”. This is a case history report illustrating the psychological defense system of a 100 year old woman who at assessment was “Happy and Healthy” while “Never Thinking about Her Own Death”.
3. Comparison of the Correlates’ Structure of the Rorschach, SIS-I and SIS-II Projective Techniques with the MMPI Test and Factorial Analysis of the Indicators, Anatoly B. Khromov and Bankey L. Dubey, pages 12-21.
The correlation of Rorschach, SIS-I and SIS-II inkblot tests were measured to find out the mutual empirical validity of the MMPI test. The three tests were administered to 98 subjects. The results were ciphered on identical forms containing 54 categories which were correlated with the MMPI test. The structure of correlation in each pair matrix of three inkblot tests was calculated and has been compared. Сronbach has commented that projective techniques give wider strips of information and lower reliability in comparison with objective psychometric tests whereas Cassell (1980) emphasized that increased structure of projective stimulus have raised the level of reliability of projective tests. The present research revealed that psychometric properties of inkblots tests increased after increasing the stimulus from Rorschach to SIS-I 20 images and from SIS-I, to SIS-II (62 images). However, it was not able to increase the ability to differentiate subjects’ specific mental disorders. Correlation between ambiguity and projection of properties of the person has nonlinear character, and the moderate level of ambiguity gives an optimum variant at displaying.
4. Personality of Children with Emotional Disorders: A psychodynamic study, Anindita Mukherjee, Soheli Datta, Atri Sanyal, Atanu K.Dogra and Sanjukta Das, pages 22-26.
The promotion of healthy child development has become a major focus of world attention over the last three decades. However, children are often affected by emotional disorders in recent years. These are exhibited by undue thoughts and disrupted behaviors as opposed to cultural expectations. The present study is aimed to find out the comparison among children with Externalizing/Internalizing disorder and their Peer Control with respect to the nature and degree of underlying dynamics of personality. The sample includes children with externalizing disorder, internalizing disorder and peer control. Each group consists of 15 participants. On each of the groups, a semi structured socio-demographic proforma, consent letters by parents and clinical data sheets were administered to the children. The criterion for clarification of externalizing and internalizing disorder groups was assessed using the Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (Naglieri et al., 1979) and followed by the CAT- Human Version (Bellak & Bellak, 1965). The findings indicated that, externalizing children have poor impulse control and intense need for autonomy and power, internalizing children have intense need for affiliation and moral values and take decision on the basis of ethical judgments and normal peer control group have more balanced ego as compared to the other two clinical groups.
5. A Comparative Study of Emotional Characteristics of Children with and without ADHD by “Draw a Man Test” Moon Moon Dutta and Nilanjana Sanyal, pages 27-33.
The present research investigated the emotional characteristics of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in comparison with a control group. For this purpose, 30 children with ADHD and 30 children without any psychiatric morbidity ranging from 5 to 10 years were selected. Sample was matched based on the demographic variables. The Draw a Man Test was administered individually to both groups. Drawings were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively, utilizing a list of emotional indicators proposed by Koppitz. Two judges were appointed to assess the psychological functioning of the drawing profiles. For data analysis, Chi square test, Binomial test and Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient (r) were considered using SPSS software (16th version). Results revealed significantly more emotional indicators were found in the clinical than in the control group (χ2 = 17.46, p<.01) . Judgements regarding psychological functioning were rated by the two judges on a 5-point scale found to be significantly correlated (r=0.524; p<0.01). Clinical group has poorer psychological functioning compared to the control group. These results suggest that the Draw-A-Man test could be useful as a developmental screening device, to assess the child’s emotional maturity and to indicate any possibility of developing psychopathology.
6. Self-Esteem and Emotion Regulation as Determinants of Mental Health of Youth, Sinto P. Anto and C. Jayan, pages 34-40.
The present study examined the role of self- esteem and emotion regulation on the mental health of youth. 121 college students were administered the Self Esteem Inventory, DERS scale and Mental Health Scale. Statistical analysis was done using Two Way ANOVA. The findings revealed significant differences between high, moderate and low self- esteem groups on mental Health. No difference was found between high, moderate and low Emotion Dysregulation Groups on Mental Health. No significant interaction of emotion regulation and self- esteem on mental health was found in the study.
7. Elements of Drawing and Depression among Adolescents in Kerala, South India: An Explorative Study using A Person Picking a Mango from a Tree, L. S. S. Manickam and V. Sajani, pages 41-46.
Advances in art based assessments in art therapy in clinical settings led to the development of objective measurements of various elements in drawing. The present study was aimed at assessing the elements that are related to depression manifested in the drawing task of “Person Picking a Mango from a Tree” (PPMT). The sample consisted of 60 adolescents in two groups-the depressive group of 30 with high scores of depression and 30 with low scores of depression, who served as the non-depressive group. The PPMT drawings were assessed using Formal Elements of Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) by two raters who had established high inter-rater reliability. The two groups had significant differences on 3 of the 14 subscales.
8. Sociometric Method of the Research of Hidden Conflicts in the Small Professional Groups on the Basis of Zondi Deep Inducements, N.V. Zhukova, A.I. Lozhkin and I.S. Guseva, pages 47-52.
Hidden conflicts are caused by the actual needs of the individual, which can be steady using the Zondi test. On the basis of the incentives formula of the person, which includes the root promptings, situational and manifested factors in the procedure, sociometric research methods in small professional groups "open" personality conflicts can be anticipated.
9. Anxiety, Loneliness, Adjustment, Shame and Depression of the hearing impaired with respect to marital status of parents, Anitha Kumari,T.T. & Rakhee, A.S., pages 53-55.
Hearing is one of the major sensory abilities of an individual. Hearing spoken language is most important in the process of developing human life. Hindrance in the process of hearing can cause hearing impairment or deafness. A sample of 300 hearing impaired adolescents including both males and females, between 11 to 19 years of age were selected for the present study using purposive sampling. The aim of the study was to investigate anxiety, loneliness, adjustment, shame and depression with respect to marital status of parents. The examinees were administered ADS inventory to obtain the scores of anxiety, loneliness, adjustment, shame and depression. The results show that anxiety in deaf has a significant relationship with marital status of parents.
10. Factors Associated with Self-esteem in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia, Sudhir Kumar and Sandhyarani Mohanty, pages 56-60.
Self-esteem is an important component of psychological health. Self-esteem refers to an individual’s sense of value or worth, or the extent to which a person appreciates, or likes himself. Treatment failures, functional loss, demoralization and stigmatization may lower self-esteem in patients with severe mental illnesses. Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. Low self-esteem contributes in both the development of delusions and the maintenance of psychotic symptoms. The present study aimed at exploring self-esteem and its associated factors in persons with chronic schizophrenia. This is a cross-sectional correlational study conducted at the Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Agra. The sample consisted of 50 persons with chronic schizophrenia in the age range of 20-55 years. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, PANSS and Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI) were administered to the participants. The results revealed a significant association of the level of insight, Current functioning of the patient, positive symptoms, negative symptoms and general psychopathology with self-esteem.
11. Association of Hypnotizability and Suggestibility in Young Adults, Ruchi Jain, Sandhyarani Mohanty and Rakesh Kumar, pages 61-64.
Hypnotizability is a key variable of interest which is being studied with reference to several psychological and physiological variables. In the present study we explored the relationship between Hypnotizability and Suggestibility in young adults. A correlational design was used. The sample consisted of 100 healthy participants (50 male and 50 female) from Agra, India who were screened through GHQ-12. Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS) and Hyp-Nova Suggestibility Scale were administered individually to the participants. Data was analyzed through product moment correlation. The results indicated a positive association between physical suggestibility and hypnotizability and a negative association between emotional suggestibility and hypnotizability. The implications of using Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS) are drawn which should guide not only the assessment of hypnotic susceptibility but also the application of hypnosis based interventions in psychological problems.
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