Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health: Volume 18, Number 2, July 2011 Editorial
|1. Editorial: Dissolving Death Anxiety with Yoga Empowered SIS, Wilfred A. Cassell, pages 123-129.
This editorial is dedicated to the spirit of the unknown individual who eons ago accepted a monumental gift from our “Cosmic Creator”. This Divine selected person was given positive energy accompanied by enlightening insight concerning the “Body image” focusing foundation principles underlying Yoga. Because of its antiquity, there was no written record documenting the exact date yet this was a momentous event in our human history of knowledge. It provided the intellectual stimulus for all subsequent developments in mind-body-spirit theory. Gradually over the centuries, devout practitioners refined techniques conceived to optimize the multilevel benefits from the practice of this discipline. It is anticipated that more optimal refinements may come from futuristic studies involving the blending of Yoga, dream imagery and SIS concepts.
Historically, after the advent of the scientific method, many rigorous international studies have documented Yoga’s multiple positive health effects. Unfortunately, this documentation has been primarily related to physiologic/psychological functioning. Less has been scientifically accomplished with humans regarding “spirituality”. Perhaps, this is partly because of the intangible nature and remoteness from mathematical quantification of this dimension.
Fortunately, fascinating progress has been made recently, in scientifically assessing higher mental/behavioral processes in other living creatures. Some scientists suggest that these may even indirectly provide a lens for viewing the primitive foundation of the human soul. In any case, I have observed instances in which projective inkblot techniques and dream data can be blended with Yoga guided somatic awareness. Pilot studies suggest that such a blending process may bring into focus the spiritual dimension for observation and modification.
One fundamental spiritual/philosophical/religious construct for introspective humans concerns our Cosmic passage through existence in a time limited biological vessel destined to die. For many people this dilemma necessarily poses an arousing threat, while contemplating one’s fragile “Body image”. Sometimes the negative energy surrounding their anticipation of dying is sufficiently severe to trigger mental disturbances in childhood (e.g. “Nightmares”, somatic symptoms etc.). Later in adolescence and early adulthood these may become more cognitively formulated linked with threatening affect operationally herein defined as “Death anxiety”.
This was periodically experienced by my deceased psychiatrist mentor, inkblot artist Herman Rorschach. For illustration purposes, please consider the following imaginary interview:
Now I invite the reader to share an imaginary conversation of mine with Rorschach’s soul involving a science- fiction- like type of Cosmic time/space travel:
“Herman, please allow me to introduce myself. My name is Wilfred Cassell, a fellow inkblot designer living in the early 21st century. I know that in your short, professional career, you did not receive much support financially. It must have been humiliating that solely for economic reasons, your publisher omitted one third of your inkblots. I want to immediately share some good news from earth: YOUR TEN REMAINING INKBLOTS TURNED OUT TO BE THE BASIS FOR A HIGHLY VALUED PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE!
Please rest assured that your legacy lives on in this 21st century, especially in modern day India. Perhaps you might be interested in some historical background regarding India’s rise to prominence. After the World War that Hitler was planning at the time of your death, and thankfully lost, Indian citizens became free from British imperialism.
Now, India is rapidly emerging beyond its rich heritage of Yoga based, depth psychology as an international leader in projective inkblot techniques. Unlike the study of brain anatomy, the study of central nervous system function can only be brought to full fruition in an open cultural atmosphere. In India, there is an optimal integration growing between time honored, body-mind-spirit insights, with projective knowledge, derived from modern electronic inkblot technology.
India now provides a secure democratic bastion in a world still beset by evil. Many countries still live in the dark intellectual ages blinded by Hitler- emulating, authoritarian, repressive political/religious leaders. Many would, if they could “burn” all projective literature, in order to destroy all such in-depth reality testing, honest inquiry. They capitalize on the immature desires of those who were neglected /abused in their early development years, who habitually seek authoritarian parental surrogates. They cling to leaders who facilitate the projection of their own hidden inner world erotic/aggressive, sadomasochistic impulses on victims like the German prison guards did to the Jews and others during World War II.
At this point, I would like to give you a brief historical review of the evolution of your technique. You may recall attempting to develop a scoring method in order to appraise and quantify responses. Of course, your untimely death prevented any significant progress in the development of an assessment system. Fortunately, several insightful psychologists took up the development of a meaningful analysis based upon an integration of both examination strategies.
Of course, when culturally normative data scores are ignored, this opens up the criticism that the data reflects more what is on the examiner’s mind than that of the responder. Yet after World War II, this did not deter psychoanalysts from clinically exploring the treatment applications of Rorschach Content Analysis.” Unfortunately, their promising findings are now more a part of history, than modern clinical practice.
At this time, Herman, I would like to give you a brief historical review of your inkblot technique’s growth since your untimely death prevented any significant progress in developing a meaningful assessment system. Fortunately, many psychologists have made extensive contributions not only in clinical diagnostic settings, but, as well, many other test assessment applications.
Yet, while of considerable statistical merit, these sometimes fail to openly declare that their particular scoring system did not rely on basic principles of projection. In their absence, it is a misnomer for the professional examiner to refer to the results as data fundamentally derived from a “Projective test“. This categorization is only accurate when the reviewer scores responses for either direct or symbolic meaning through content analysis. Typically, in clinical practice, the response review is not an “either or situation.” Most experienced psychometricians will provide a meaningful analysis based upon an integration of both assessment strategies.
Yet, the generally recognized value of your inkblots is a testimony of their “pulling power” to release in projective awareness diagnostically relevant imagery. While others have designed inkblots, our only describes the work of one psychologist, Wayne Holtzman. He made an A and B series with 45 inkblots in each form, plus two practice blots common to both forms, a total of 92 different blots, some of which are not symmetrical. He advocates counting only one response per card. He also appreciated the symbolic power of content analysis and illustrated this approach by reviewing a case history in his book.
My work with your ten inkblots began in 1959. I developed two such scoring systems for assessing degrees of focal body awareness associated with somatic symptoms. These are briefly outlined in this book in the section describing “the Somatic Inkblot Series (SIS)”. The objective of my original investigation was to study the relationship between a subject’s heart awareness and the sensory feedback of cardiovascular activity. However, as you know, in your ten inkblots there is only a little color-form structure suggestive of the heart. In pilot studies, I soon found it not methodologically worthwhile using them for such “psychosomatic” research. Consequently, I designed a set suggestive of the heart. After these were found to be useful, I applied the same projective principle in designing inkblots with structure relative to a variety of somatic regions as well as common, clinical imagery themes.
Exploring Rorschach’s Occupational Secondary Empathetic Stress:
Next, I wish to speak more personally about your final professional years on planet earth. Your pioneering, projective studies in Switzerland also demanded mental strength because of an ever menacing evil political climate. Your views, concerning the underlying nature of mental disorders, were conceived in the intellectually repressed period prior to World War II. In that era of mental science, the racist shadow of Hitler’s genetic biases was casting a dark shadow throughout Europe. In Germany, many psychiatric patients suffering from Schizophrenic Disorder were murdered by injection. Because of your humanistic inkblot projective studies exploring the psychological distortions of the psychotic mind, no doubt you were indirectly pressured by Nazi, brain programmed Swiss hospital authorities.
I empathetically understand your past suffering, prior to your untimely death at age thirty-seven. Prior to the introduction of antipsychotic medication in the second half of the 20th century, attempting to diagnose and treat catatonic, withdrawn or alternatively aggressive, delusional, hallucinating, psychotic patients, must have been highly stressful. Probably at times, like other psychiatrists working in such a psychologically toxic environment, you have suffered from what we now refer to as secondary, empathetic traumatic mental stress symptoms.
Unlike your psychiatric hospital colleagues, you were much more at risk for this occupational hazard. Ironically, this was likely partially traceable to the powerful projective technique that you yourself had designed. Your secondary empathetic exposure was greatly magnified when you peered into the psychotic inner world of such suffering souls through the powerful projective lens of your inkblots. Fortunately, modern hospital psychiatrists have a variety of helpful antipsychotic drugs to reduce such disturbances. However, without these available, no doubt their tormented projected imagery vividly exposes your own brain’s visual centers and emotion linked neural networks to their tormented pathologic “nightmares,” somatic delusions, hallucinations, affect storms etc.
Through the magic of this spiritual cosmic connection, let me act for a few moments as your own personal psychotherapist. In my opinion, your professional life situation was comparable to that of the early 20th century radiologists. Many of them were largely naïve about their unprotected occupational exposure to cancer inducing radiation that could subject them to cancer. Prior to this knowledge, some died prematurely. Like them, you are an inspirational historical hero in my imaginary, 21st century scientific hall of fame.
I would like to continue this brief therapeutic analysis by exploring the psychological significance of a stress triggered dream, which apparently you dreamt as a young medical student:
“In my first clinical semester, I was for the time at an autopsy and looked at it with the well-known respectful eagerness of a young student. The dissection of the brain interested me particularly, and I joined all kinds of reflections about the localization and the cutting up of the soul. The deceased had been an apoplectic; the brain was cut in transverse slices. The following night I had a DREAM IN WHICH I FELT MY OWN BRAIN WAS BEING CUT IN TRANSVERSE SLICES. ONE SLICE AFTER ANOTHER WAS CUT OFF FROM THE MASS OF THE HEMISPHERE AND FELL FORWARD, EXACTLY AS IT HAD HAPPENED AT THE AUTOPSY. THESE BODILY SENSATIONS (I LACK A MORE PRECISE DESIGNATION) WERE VERY CLEAR, AND THE MEMORY OF THAT DREAM IS NOW FAIRLY VIVID”.
Perhaps, Herman you will still recall this body-mind-spirit, significant dream. Please understand that I have respect for your artistic creativity and courage to challenge the early 20th century clinicians, who solely relied on psychic surface phenomenon obtained from archaic, psychiatric interview techniques. So do not be offended if I attempt to assist you in bringing to your spirit’s attention its possible significance to your having experienced an exaggerated degree of Death anxiety. My help is based upon the notion that no one, no matter how symbolically sophisticated, that no mortal can comprehensively interpret his/her personal dreams.
The fact that you remembered the details of the dream so accurately, many years later, suggests that it was linked with high anxiety. Next, I wish to draw attention to its possible meaning through Content analysis. Notice that the projected imagery contains content referring to two dimensions: (1) the human brain, as a physical object of the human body on the planet earth and (2) the “soul” as a spiritual dimension of Brahman consciousness connecting to the “Afterlife” in “Pre Big Bang” cosmic existence.
My interpretation is that it was probably the latter death related connotation that activated the threatening emotions. We now know that as a result of such an occupational environment, psychiatrists have traditionally had a relatively high rate of self destructive behaviors, including what now seems like suicidal behavior. May I ask you a personal question? Did this stress play a role in neglecting to seek prompt treatment for your ruptured appendix?
Also, forgive me if I seem to insult you, but I am trying to assist you in discovering the dream’s significance. Did you have an interest in finding out if various predictions about the “Afterlife” made by the world’s major religions were valid? In neglecting your ruptured appendix were you depressed, or perhaps even suicidal, wishing to escape your emotionally painful professional life? Or alternatively, were you simply curious about what it would be like to prematurely pass through the spiritual door leading to “Pre Big Bang” existence?
In addition, I would like your impressions, regarding the nature of the “Afterlife.” Being seventy seven years old, I expect to be joining it soon. Many on earth anticipate that it really is a loving “Heavenly” spiritual dimension. Many believe that it is where; ultimately, after the soul exits the human body (like in SIS-II B 22), it can reunite with deceased loved ones and other meaningful souls.
Sometimes, especially during the early stages of grieving, some humans periodically experience the extrasensory mystical impression that their deceased loved one is spiritually present. In addition, such visitations are reassuring in dreams, during which the visitor’s loving spirit appears to be free of human cares and worldly suffering.
Of course, many skeptics consider such emotionally charged mystical experiences quite irrational. They critically focus on the wishful thinking aspects of religious dogma, that promise: “Pie in the sky when you die, it’s a lie, ” for example, “Being next to the feet of God, with your sins forgiven - if you donate money to the church,” “Being sexually rewarded if you sacrifice your body in terrorist acts, ” etc.
Before ending Herman may I ask one more favor? Would you please consider helping me by providing a “Second opinion” regarding a man fifty years old? He has been in treatment with me and a female psychotherapist at intervals for several years. He suffers from Chronic Recurrent Major Depression and episodically has benefited from psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. Moreover the past year, he has actively engaged in Yoga for thirty minutes in the morning and ninety in the evening.
The onset of his Affective Disorder was in his childhood. It began when his father at thirty seven years old developed terminal cancer. As an eight year old boy, he had felt “incredible love” for his dad. After a long period of suffering, his father eventually died. Years later as an adult in therapy, he recalled that this had triggered “grief that was unbelievable…I still carry the grief today pretty buried inside…If I dream of him (He tended to experience such dreams around the anniversary date of his father’s death. An example follows: In my dream I wanted to visit his grave but I got lost driving…I felt sad and was crying… and had to stop to get directions but they didn’t match)…I’m able to cry…I still miss him terribly… the loss was tragic…the whole world came to an end…part of myself was torn open and left that way!”
When asked about his mother‘s reaction, he said that “She was devastated…she changed…she became distant and never came back emotionally.” (His mature female psychotherapist partially functions as a surrogate mother figure assisting him in resolving maternal emotional abandonment issues.).
While he was temporarily away working in a remote wilderness setting, in a follow-up telephone psychotherapy session, he was asked if he would give permission to share his clinical history. He e-mailed the following: “I typed up the dream that we talked about (in the office)…that was one of those tough ones where the grief comes out…it never is a very pleasant experience…but necessary…please feel free to use the information in any way that you would like too…if it could help anybody else going through hard times that would be great!”
His dream follows:
“I dreamed that I was in a room and my dad was there…he looked quite old…he was grey haired and had a lot of wrinkles…he did not say anything to me for a while…I was very excited and happy that he was there…he was moving around the room sitting on different pieces of furniture…I was just watching him…I thought that he was being kind of “stand-off-ish”…keeping to himself…then he got up and went into another room and I followed him…he set down on the couch and I walked up to him, stood in front of him and just looked at him for a second…then I said that I could use a hug…he smiled and looked at me and got up off the couch and gave me a big hug…when he hugged me, a warm peaceful feeling moved through my whole body…it started a the top and moved down to my feet…it felt wonderful!”
When asked in the office therapy session to say more about how he felt in the dream, he said: “I was very glad to see my dad…I couldn’t take my eyes off him…I wanted to talk to him and hug him…when he hugged me it felt incredible…like something good was poured into my body… it felt warm.”
Next in the email, he explored the dreams symbolism as follows: “In other dreams of my dad he was young with dark hair…and very smooth almost glowing skin…In this dream he was very old with grey hair and very wrinkled…I wonder if this may represent my age…like maybe I don’t have that much time left…in this dream he was stand-off-ish…I had to initiate contact…but when I did he responded happily with a smile. Now I have some questions…what was the warmth that passed through or into my body when we hugged? Was this a dream about my dad…or a spiritual visitation from my dad?”
Soon after while I was in Yoga meditation I received clinically helpful answers that I plan to share in the next psychotherapy session. Sensing the presence of Herman’s supportive spirit caused my heart to race with great joy. Initially it was puzzling, but then creative thoughts involuntarily flashed into my mind. Herman. Apart from Herman’s clinical consultation, I realized the necessity for patience. My philosophical/religious questions could never be answered now. All mortals have to wait until death, when the soul leaves the body.
However, I did appreciate that a new Yoga imagining exercise entered my mind, as if programmed by Herman. I envisioned a futuristic image activating visual exercise for enhancing spiritual communication with those in the “Afterlife.” This involved supplementing the traditional mediator’s state of Brahman consciousness. The mental change prescribed, involved changing the direction of spatial focus from introspection, to the polar opposite direction, far beyond the body into Cosmic space.
To accomplish this, the following psychic steps may be initiated, once Brahman consciousness is entered: Imagery is to be conjured up in conscious awareness, by recalling memories of modern mesmerizing, astronomical photographs of remote galaxies (such as taken by the Hubble telescope). Once these mental pictures are recalled from memory storage, it becomes subjectively possible during Yoga, to fantasize traveling on a mystical space ship, to visit the deceased, located in the spiritual dimension of the “Afterlife.” This destination can be realized by fantasizing one’s spirit first leaving the body(as portrayed in SIS-II B 22) and then traveling back in time to the beginning of the universe by passing through cosmic space to ultimately arrive beyond the original site of the “Big Bang.” Such a psychic voyage could clear consciousness from negative existential personal loneliness/grief, and restore positive bonds. Simultaneously it could neutralize/heal extraneous contaminating stressful memories, as well as distressing input from the modern media. If accomplished through repeated daily Yoga exercises, this would enrich those having religious faith to grow in a positive healing spirituality.
This image stimulating approach will be expanded upon in a later section. However, Consistent with my mentor’s Death anxiety, for illustration purposes I will now briefly present my own personal history. Subsequently when meditating I gained insight how “Death anxiety” provided my deeper psychological determinants for designing the original cardiac “inkblots” that preceded SIS-I.
When I was an active adolescent boy in Canada, my hockey activities were immediately stopped by an old family physician. During routine chest examination for a “Chest Cold“, he detected a heart murmur. He warned me that I would soon die, if I didn’t immediately restrict all active sports. Since I was experiencing no cardiovascular symptoms, I only followed his ominous advice for a limited period. Yet subsequently when actively competing in various sports, I constantly feared dying of a “heart attack”.
Later during my medical training after I volunteered to be a control subject in a cardiac study, the cardiologist reassured me that what the family doctor had heard was a normal physiologic murmur which had absolutely no pathological significance. While his medical reassurance was helpful, my heart/death related hypochondriacal anxieties were not totally erased.
In 1980 I reported in my book “Body Symbolism” that I originally designed blots resembling the heart primarily because of planning to design psychophysiology studies monitoring cardiovascular functions, while concurrently protectively assessing inkblot perception. As noted above, through introspection and meditation I realized that unresolved persistent residual Death anxiety may have played an unconscious role.
I also now realize from empirical trials with SIS-II B17 depicting a beautiful love filled alive beating heart may be used as a life symbol to augment positive energy during Yoga. When a meditating subject is instructed to imagine the heart stopping, an imaginary moment for the viewer to face death under supervised conditions.
My adolescent onset Body image anxiety also accounted for my designing several others portraying death linked spirituality. One graphic example is B22 symbolizing the dying individual’s “soul” leaving the body. In order to convert such negative psychic affect into positive energy, the Yoga Master can instruct the viewer of B22 to identify spiritually with the flow of the soul away from the body. After this mental set is conjured up in the consciousness, the non-atheist based believer may be instructed to envision loving spiritually in the afterlife.
Positive life energy may be represented symbolically by viewing the final segment, which shows peaceful, nature scenes, with joyful appearing living creatures that ends the SIS-II. Here it may be suggested that the final picture of a beautiful, shining full moon symbolically represents the first phase of the soul’s cosmic voyage back to the Divine Creator to joyfully join deceased loved ones.
I encourage members of the SIS Society to collaborate with motivated Yoga Masters to conceptualize and implement innovative somatic imaging guidance techniques.
2. Attempted Suicide in Borderline Patients: Projective Suggestions and Clinical Paths, Rossetti, R. and Silvia Daini, pages 130-146.
Patients with a borderline personality structure often show suicidal and self-harm dynamics which represent a serious obstacle to treatment. Are presented two clinical cases of such patients with a previous suicide attempt, who, after a psycho-diagnostic phase, have undertaken a dynamic-oriented psychotherapy? The purpose of this study is to begin a discussion on the suicidal dynamics of borderline patients, trying to show: 1) how these dynamics can be detected already in the diagnostic phase; 2) how this phase plays a central role in starting a possible psychological reflection about it; 3) how such a reflection, when conducted later in therapy, could probably reduce the desire for death in patients.
3. Role of Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Predicting Mental Health and Well-being, Prachi Saxena, Akanksha Dubey and Rakesh Pandey, pages 147-154.
The present study reports the relationship of emotion regulation difficulties and alexithymia with mental health and subjective wellbeing of an individual. Two hundred and eighty eight participants (218 males and 70 females) in the age range of 16 to 38 years (Mean age =20.78, SD= 2.95 years) were assessed on a measure of alexithymia, difficulties in emotion regulation, general mental health, and subjective well-being (assessed by Positive Negative Affect Schedule and Satisfaction with Life Scale). The results of the bi-variate correlation analysis revealed that difficulties in understanding and communicating as well as regulating emotions, in general, have a negative influence on health and wellbeing. However, the findings of stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that some specific types of emotional deficits such as difficulties in identifying feelings, lack of emotional clarity and limited access to emotion regulation strategies were relatively more important in predicting the health status and well-being of an individual as compared to other emotional difficulties. Overall the findings imply that emotion regulation difficulties and alexithymia in general are associated with impaired mental health and lower levels of happiness and life satisfaction, i.e., subjective well-being. The observed findings have been discussed in the light of the available empirical evidence.
4. Penetrative Interpretation of the Inner Self of a Case through Projective Imagery: A Comparative Exploration, Nilanjana Sanyal, Manisha Dasgupta and Sarika Agarwal, pages 155-164.
The paper highlights the clinical probing of a case, aged 8 years, first born, and belonging to a Muslim family of middle socio-economic strata, living with maternal grandparents, and having adjustment problems. She was administered with the Children’s Apperception Test (CAT), Fairy Tale Test (FTT), and Somatic Inkblot Series – (SIS-II). The three different projective tests were administered for cross-verification of the findings. Results revealed striking congruence of the signs of the searches in relation to the clinical delving of the interview and the projective probing of the case, reflecting the clinical efficacy of projective tests in general.
5. Diagnostic Indicators of SIS-I among Non-Paranoid Schizophrenics, Bhawna Singh, Rajni Kashyap and A. K. Srivastava, pages 165-167.
Somatic Inkblot Series-I was administered to 50 non-paranoid Schizophrenic patients and 50 normal subjects to identify the diagnostic indicators of non paranoid schizophrenics. The results indicated that the patient group scored lower on total response, animal response, sex, human movement, most typical and typical response.
6. Pathological Personality and Approval Motive in Smokers, Archana Singh, S. K. Singh and R. K. Singh, pages 168-172.
This study was carried out with the aim to study the psychopathological components in the personality of smokers and reaction to social approval motives. A group of 20 male smokers (mean age 25.23 yrs) were selected from Patna district and a demographically matched sample of 20 male non -smokers were also selected from the adult population. Tools used in the study were Personal and Socio demographic data sheet, Rorschach Inkblot Test, Beck Depression Inventory and Approval Motive Scale. Results showed that smokers have significantly higher levels of anxiety and poor coping resources, higher on neuroticism and lower on agreeableness and conscientiousness in comparison to non-smokers. Smokers have a poor level of thinking and social isolation. Significant lower trends in normative behavior and social approval scores proved their social avoidance from social norms. The study concluded that chain- smoking may be an indicator of some inert psychopathology.
7. Dissociative Convulsion Disorder: A Case Study, Preeti Pandey, Ajay Tiwari and Nalini Mishra, Pages 173-176.
The Somatic Inkblot Series (Cassell and Dubey, 2003) was administered to a 16 years old girl, studying 10th grade with complaints of fits of unconsciousness, severe headache, low mood and nausea. She was diagnosed with a case of “Dissociative Convulsion Disorder” as per ICD-10. The SIS response projected her poor interpersonal relationship, pent up aggression, physical abuse and disturbed family functioning. The SIS imagery was used as a therapeutic intervention tool with positive change in her condition.
8. Depression, Personality Characteristics and Gain among Female Patients Suffering From Somatoform Disorder and Chronic Physical Pain in Comparison to Normal Controls, Damayanti Datta, Jayanti Basu and Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Pages 177-185.
The study purports to compare the degree of depression, certain personality characteristics and perceived gain in persons suffering from somatoform disorder, orthopedic pain and normal controls. The sample consisted of 30 women suffering from somatoform disorder, 30 from orthopaedic pain and 30 normal controls. They were administered a detailed information schedule, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Neo Five Factor Inventory and a Gain schedule prepared for the purpose. MANOVA was conducted to determine the significance of differences among the groups, followed by individual ANOVAs and Scheffe’s tests. Results revealed that depression and gain from disease were highest and extraversion lowest in the somatoform group. The two patient groups differed from the control in terms of other personality variables.
9. Coping Strategies and Psychological Defenses Used by Mentally ILL Criminals, Vidhata Dixit, D. K.Kenswar, Jai Prakash and Amool R. Singh, pages 186-192.
Coping strategies and defense mechanisms are an individual’s important personality traits which strongly influence the ease with which people are able to form and maintain healthy relationships. Certain psychological traits including coping strategies and defenses are frequently detected in the personalities of criminals prone to aggression and maladjustment. Identification of these will be helpful in predicting risk of criminal acts in these patients as well as their better management. A total of 25 male mentally ill criminals and 25 normal controls were selected through purposive sampling technique. Defense Mechanism Inventory (DMI) and Brief Approach/Avoidance Coping Questionnaire (BACQ) were administered individually. Mann Whitney-U test was used to find differences between two groups. Results showed that mentally ill criminals used more maladaptive defenses like Turning against object (TAO), Projection (PRO), Turning against self (TAS) and Reversal (REV), but used less of an adaptive defense mechanism of Principalization (PRN). As regards coping strategy, the criminal mentally ill patients lagged behind significantly to approach a problem situation and avoided them than the normal controls by keeping themselves away from social interaction, lacking planning and action related diversions showed negative attitude regarding tackling current problems.
10. Associational Contents of Rorschach and its Relationship with Verbal Intelligence in adults, Shweta, R. C. Bajpai, A. R. Singh and K. S. Sengar, 193-199.
Intellectual functioning of individuals has very close correlation with Rorschach responses. Being able to think logically, coherently, flexibly and constructively are personality strengths of individuals that promote good adjustment. People function best when they can use ideation effectively without allowing thoughts to dominate their psychological lives at the expense of feeling or their peace of mind. Being open to emotional as well as ideational experience contributes to good adjustment by providing people with a broad repertoire of coping skills and being in control of the contents of their minds which helps people to avoid becoming preoccupied with disturbing thoughts. The content of a work of art has no actual existence in the subject’s actual world but in the Rorschach Inkblot Test, individuals perceive the same with their imaginative ability. The purpose of the present study is to see the relationship between verbal intelligence and various associational content responses on the Rorschach Inkblot Test by following Beck’s system. The sample includes 340 Indian adult non-patients, ranging in age from 20 to 30 years, who were drawn through stratified systematic random sampling technique from the capital of India, Delhi. Result indicates both positive and negative correlation between verbal intelligence and Rorschach contents. Some Contents do not show any correlation. Further, a total of twenty seven contents have been obtained which have significant contributions in describing the Indian personality.
11. Cognitive Flexibility in Patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder: Current Episode Mania, S. K. Yadav, S. Alreja, K. S. Sengar and A. R. Singh, pages 200-205.
Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression interspersed with episodes of complete recovery. However, some residual cognitive deficits are reported. The present study aimed to see cognitive flexibility in patients suffering from Bipolar Affective Disorder with the current episode of Mania on Comprehensive Trail-making Test in terms of deficits in Psychomotor speed, Visual search and Sequencing, Attention and Set shifting. Fifty patients suffering from Bipolar Affective Disorder with current episode of Mania diagnosed according to ICD-10 DCR criteria and fifty normal participants matched with respect to age and gender were taken for the study. Participants were individually assessed on the Comprehensive Trail-Making Test to examine the status of these cognitive functions. In comparison to normal participants, manic patients felt significant problems in almost all the areas under study.
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