Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health: Volume 16, Number 2, July 2009 Editorial
|1. Editorial : SIS Guided Outer –Inner Focusing, Wilfred A.Cassell, pages 89-90.
Thanks to all those who over the years have contributed, and especially to Dr..Bankey L. Dubey, for his active leadership, this journal is now getting the recognition that it deserves. Now, it is regularly reviewed in reputable publications that expose it to a wider international scientific audience. As it evolves, our editorial board will have the opportunity to publish a wider range of evidence based studies. As a starting point in understanding the human condition, encouragement will be given to those from the basic neurosciences, and then, those encompassing psychosocial studies. At the less tangible pole of this scientific spectrum, welcome will be given to those who attempt to unveil the intangible mysteries of dreams and spirituality with projective imagery.
In covering this wide range of subject material, the future goal will be to facilitate author-reader communication between geographically distant, but intellectually close internet participants. Thanks to Anand Dubey, who updated the SIS web page, this facilitation can now be completed more easily through the internet and related electronic devices.
SIS scientists can now explore with modern technology the body-mind-spirit insights derived from the inner directed focusing of traditional yoga meditation. This mysterious, yet powerful beneficial technique has the potential to benefit all introspective people- especially the young. Hopefully our new section on our SIS web page will provide an opportunity for many to “Delete Brain Viruses''. Once their mind becomes free of restrictive authoritarian dogma and open to scientific based concepts of reality ideas, web visitors may then more effectively want to guide SIS Society elders.
In futuristic scientific studies, the outer body structured SIS stimuli has the methodological power to direct attention from the outer world on to the individuals own somatic cell. Structure suggestive of the internal organs can further redirect this focusing to the innermost aspects of the body gestalt (e.g. the heart, GI tract). It was well known that the psychological activity in such inner regions can be mysteriously altered by a meditating yoga master. This has long been validated by scientific instrumentation, yet the underlying mechanisms pose challenges for future SIS investigators. Once these processes are better illuminated by the application of the SIS concept, more effective techniques may be developed for training the public in meditation practices.
Not only as a daily beneficial standardized yoga practice, SIS guided image subjective programs can be developed for special life situations. One example involves learning from a SIS trainer conscious control to activate professionally conceived image defenses to deal with deleterious effects of severe psychological stress. In the absence of such, susceptible individuals historically have to solely rely on inbuilt brain mechanisms associated with the Dissociative Disorder. Rather than having to become depersonalized wouldn't it be better for an individual in a high stress occupation to have been previously trained in activating positive imagery?
An example of this was presented in a case history reported earlier in this Journal and noted in the new web. it was courageously given during a SIS television recorded SIS educational interview. This was provided by a psychologist who at age 16 was severely traumatized by being in Auschwitz. She avoided fracturing her ego or sense of self by retaining her personal identity within her “Body Gestalt”. Thus, when ordered to dance for her tormentors, she fantasized that she was on a concert stage dancing to beautiful music for an appreciative ballet audience.
Members of this society are also challenged by the need to develop effective operational guidelines for developing an optimal daily balance for focusing on outer world reality issues, as opposed to inner subjective emotionally colored processes. Regarding the illumination of the former attention field, as another example of its many applications, the SIS can serve as a modern day “Dream Catcher''.
It has been repeatedly observed that the PTSD “nightmares” of individuals subjected to severely stressful situations are readily projected in either a carbon copy type fashion or disguised in symbolism. Since life situations for all people inevitably lead to some degree of stress, SIS practitioners can also provide training in this area. Motivated web visitors may benefit from introspective dream analysis designed to understand their outer world relevance. It may also help grieving individuals to explore envisioned spiritual connections to deceased loved one.
There are many other examples concerning the application of yoga based and SIS elaborated concepts. One involves an ethically troublesome, but valid, extension of SIS work into the applied field of Industrial Psychology. Certain aspects of this in America are restricted by professional standards and laws preventing practitioners from SIS testing in industrial settings. It is proposed that our SIS Society needs to review the various issues involved and establish its own official guidelines.
As a logical extension of this application, future SIS works involving young people. The public section of the SIS web page, devoted to “Deleting Brain Viruses” represents a preliminary project in this regard. One of its goals is to provide an internet opportunity to check subjective reality against the consensus background of an electronic group of observers in a Blog-like safe setting.
Consistent with this, future work can be directed to developing valid concepts and effective SIS image technology to recognize gifted young people. One direction involves designing input with more “Human content” for others, as opposed to the ego/body field of attention. Such envisioned technology could provide future guidelines for educational programs to train community leaders to pursue an optimal outer-inner focus of attention.
The last visual field, which can be enriched by the design of new SIS stimuli, involves the least tangible one, namely the “spiritual” dimension. While it would be possible to explore this by artistically altering in a semi-ambiguous fashion the color/form structural aspects of traditional religious symbols associated with the world's great religions, this method will be avoided. Why expose SIS scientists to the vitriolic anger and threats that religious bigots, who preach “love” and “peace” spout out when the spiritual validity of their symbols are questioned?
Instead, an attempt will be made to develop a SIS series ambiguously focusing on a subject that religious authorities have traditionally emphasized, namely the position of the human race in the physical universe. Although this methodological strategy may seem less likely to arouse strong negative emotions in members of religious groups, it still involves some degree of risk. Recall the treatment of Copernicus by the Catholic Pope. There are many “Religious” people worldwide who would be emotionally threatened by inkblot art reflecting issues of evolution and astronomy, even when such projective stimuli could provide useful avenues for exploring “Spirituality”.
In spite of this, let us have the courage and intellectual honesty to proceed using the power of projection.
Wilfred A. Cassell, MD, FAPA, APC, Director, SIS Center, Anchorage, Alaska
2. How to Delete Viruses and Reconfigure the Brain's Hard Drive,Wilfred A.Cassell, B.L. Dubey, Padma Dwivedi and Amool R. Singh, pages 91-116.
In an analogous fashion to computer viruses, these are verbal messages and externally implanted cognitive/emotional/behavioral codes of a negative nature. This web site capitalizes on the power of ambiguous pictures to stimulate imagery ranging from the positive to the negative. The SIS Center has a video illustrating the former entitled “Poppa”. This was designed to program positive paternal dreams at bedtime.If abused, physically, psychologically or spiritually, the child may incorporate this negative input into the self image. Later in life, a trauma victim may be prone to acting out this implanted code on immature subjects or vulnerable adults.
Visitors to this internet site are invited to email their personal reactions to this person’s cry for help to their internet friends. Have you ever known anyone like this? Have you ever felt this way? Perhaps you know someone who also seems to have an outer “Shell '' inhibiting expression of emotions. If so this web site might be relevant.Moreover, it might prove of interest to professionals whose occupation requires interviewing skills. Interviews reveal only what a person chooses to reveal and is able to recall. Interviewing can not access memories defensively blocked from recollection. Verbal communication is also restricted by the limitations of languages as a mode of emotional expression.
3.Projective Methods in the Study of Eating Disorders- An Update, Silvia Daini, 117-123.
The projective methods are currently less used in comparison to the self-evaluation methods in the study of Eating Disorders. The correlated psychopathology cross-sectional studies bring into focus two key problems: the presence and quality of the depressive dynamics, as in anorexia and bulimia as in obesity, and those of the gender identity. Difficulties in gender identification are underlined especially in the male eating disorders. Longitudinal studies on the therapeutic changes also appear, pointed out after psychodynamic psychotherapy with the projective tests. The usage of the projective methods to emphasize the thematic concerning these patients’ true Self, with the inclusion of the diagnostic phase in integrated therapeutic projects, both traditional psychodynamic type and Art Therapy type, constitutes a further development of the clinical applications of these tools with patients with Eating Disorders.
4. Factor Structure of SIS-I in Adults, Rakesh Kumar, 124-127.
The present study aimed at delineating underlying factor structure of SIS-I quantitative indices in adults. SIS-I was individually administered on a sample of 100 participants drawn from general population. Principal Component Analysis was performed on SIS-I indices which identified four components with eigenvalue greater than one. However, only three components were rotated subsequently as only one index loaded significantly on the fourth factor. The first factor loaded significantly on typical, most typical (positive) and atypical responses and was labeled as ‘objective thinking’. The second factor loaded positively on movement, human and anatomy responses and negatively on animal responses. On the basis of the psychological implications of the constituent indices this factor was labeled as ‘emotional maturity’. The third factor loaded significantly on total number of responses (positive loading) and image rejection (negative loading) and was labeled as ‘reaction to stress’. Results are presented in the paper.
5. SIS-II Indicators of Creativity, Umed Singh, Nidhi Verma and Naseeb Singh, pages 128-133.
The present study was designed to explore SIS-II indicators of creativity. To realize the main objective, 100 male students of 11th and 12th grade were randomly selected from Senior Secondary Schools of Kurukshetra District of Haryana. The subjects were administered Somatic Inkblot Series-II and Torrance Test of Creative Thinking with Words. Obtained data were analyzed by applying descriptive statistics, the Product Moment Method of Correlation and Principal Component Factor Analysis. Obtained inter-correlations and factor structure have depicted some structured overlap between two types of measures. Six of SIS-II scales i.e. Typical, Most Typical, Human, Movement, and Depression have emerged as significant projective indicators of creativity.
6. Personality Profile of Schizophrenia and Bipolar, Affective Disorder (Mania) on SIS-II, Dolly Kumari, Jai Prakash, Amool R. Singh and Suprakash Chaudhury, pages 134-137.
Projective techniques, particularly Rorschach and SIS tests are especially helpful in evaluating patients with psychiatric disorders. The Somatic Inkblot Series has been found to be an extremely effective test to assess body imagery and somatic symptoms as well as a powerful projective tool to discriminate varieties of Psychiatric disorders. The present study is aimed at comparing the responses of schizophrenia and BAD currently manic patients on somatic Inkblot Series-II. The sample consisted of 30 schizophrenia and 30 BAD currently manic inpatients drawn through a purposive sampling technique from Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Science, (RINPAS), Ranchi. India. 15 male and female were included in each group. The results reveal that schizophrenia and BAD mania patients obtained significantly different scores on the following SIS II indices: Total number of responses, Human responses, Sex responses, Movement responses, Typical responses, Atypical responses and, Rejection of images.
7. Personality Assessment of Drug Dependent Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder, Kristian Aleman, pages 138-146.
The present paper aims at exploring the relatively new system of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) through re-assessing a cohort from 1994–96 of drug dependent patients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) plus one more comorbid PD (n=51). The procedure was to compare personality diagnoses from earlier personality assessment methods, especially the semi-structured interview of the Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile (KAPP), but also the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–III–R) with new diagnoses assessed with the PDM. Five (out of six) new personality disorders (PDs) and seven (out of 17) subtypes of PDs were assessed using PDM in the cohort, compared to DSM. The section of “Profile of Mental Functioning” in the PDM, which specifies nine different mental capacities, showed, e.g., severely decreased ”Capacity for regulation, learning, and attention” in these patients with ASPD (n=25), which KAPP does not measure, and the possibility via “Defensive patterns and capacities” to assess “projective identification” in particularly patients with ASPD/masochistic PD and ASPD/depressive PD, which KAPP is restricted to assess. These new profiles of mental functioning might be relevant for treatment planning of drug dependent patients with ASPD.
8. Effect of Psychotherapy and Vipassana Meditation on Pathological Gamblers, M.G. Sharma and Vandana Sharma, pages 147-151.
This paper examines the effect of psychotherapy and vipassana meditation on pathological gamblers. 50 treated and 50 un-treated pathological gamblers were evaluated at S.I. Mental and Physical Health Society (SIMPHS) Varanasi district in India. They were matched for age (range 21 to 60 years with a mean age of 23.69 years) and had gambled for an average of 13.7 years with a mean length of uncontrollable gambling of 8.7 years. Seven cards of TAT (Indian Adaptation) 1, 3 BM, 4, 6 BM, 7 BM, 13 MF and 16 were used to ascertain personality characteristics on the five selected dimensions viz: form, need, press, subjective state of feelings and interpersonal relations. Mean scores obtained on different variables were analyzed using the ‘t’ test of significance. Results showed that the characteristics associated with treated pathological gamblers were language, organization, dominance, outcome, achievement, counteraction, affiliation, sex, guilt, dejection, affection, good interpersonal relations and happiness visa vis emotional tone, aggression, passivity, anxiety, inferiority and press in un treated pathological gamblers.
9. SIS-I Indices as a Measure of Ego Strength in Schizophrenia, J. Mahapatra, D. Sahoo, P.K. Mishra and R. Kumar, pages 152-154.
Impaired Ego Strength is a characteristic feature of schizophrenia. Projective techniques are commonly utilized to estimate the extent of ego strength. It was tried to explore if SIS-I can also effectively gauge ego strength in schizophrenic patients. SIS-I was individually administered to 50 schizophrenic patients drawn from Psychiatry OPD of VSS Medical College, Burla, Sambalpur. A matched control group of 50 normal participants was also drawn from the general population. Consistent with the hypotheses of projective techniques, the following SIS-I indices were identified as measures of ego-strength – Total Number of Responses (R), Most Typical Responses (MT), Typical Responses (T) and Atypical Responses (AT). The results clearly indicated that like other projective tools, SIS-I indices successfully measure ego-strength in schizophrenic patients.
10. Quality of Life and Mental Health of Indian Managers, Naveen Gupta and Pankaj Handa, pages 155-159.
The multi-domain Quality of Life (QOL) in terms of Multi-factor predictors and Nine domain predictors have been studied in this paper. Controlling for Socio-Economic Status (SES) variables, significant partial beta-coefficients revealed: success in relationships of age and other independent variables with QOL among managers in North India. Standardized beta coefficients revealed that best factor predictors are ‘coping with changes in life’, ‘one’s ideas of right or wrong’, ‘trying out things’, ‘physical health’, and ‘resolution of conflict with others’, my mental health’ and being free of worry and stress; and best domain predictors are satisfaction with: ‘growth becoming’, ‘spiritual being’, and ‘physical being ’domains. The implications for future studies and theory construction are explored.
11. Diagnostic Value of the Fairy Tale Test as Compared to CAT: A Case Study, Nilanjana Sanyal and Manisha Dasgupta, pages 160-165.
The Fairy Tale Test (FTT) is a recently developed projective test for children aged 6 to 12 yrs. It is not only used for the purpose of education and training, but also for diagnostic purposes. The test provides a rich tapestry of personality domains and as such, is increasingly being used in the clinical research and therapy perspectives. The paper highlights the application of the FTT as one of the main diagnostic instruments in assessing a child’s personality, aged 11 yrs, 6 months, hailing from a Bengali middle-class joint family. Results reveal striking congruence of the findings of FTT with that of the Children’s’ Apperception Test (CAT).
12. Projection and Projective Methods: A brief Theoretical Comment, Rui C. Campos, pages 166-168.
In this work we discuss the several meanings of the projection concept and the way it expresses itself in projective methods. We also give some examples of “projective responses”. We consider that projection is not enough to characterize the response process to projective methods and is actually behind the response to all psychological tests. We discuss five features which make it possible to define the projective methods’ status and we state that these methods are unique instruments in psychological assessment.
13. A Preliminary Study of the Psychotherapy Process, Pallavi Banerjee, Jayanti Basu and Ushri Banerjee, pages 169-177.
The study explored the psychotherapists’ perspective on the change process in psychotherapy. Ten psychotherapists of Kolkata responded to an interview focusing on therapists’ views on goals in therapy, facilitative and inhibitory factors, difficulties faced and process of change. The data were coded independently by the authors. The results indicated that the therapists focused both on symptom relief and personality change. The Rogerian conditions in therapy, the client’s motivation and psychological mindedness and family support were considered important facilitative factors. Difficulties of applying western models on Indian clients were discussed. The therapeutic role of relationship and techniques were noted.
14. SIS –II Profile of Medical Practitioners, Sarika Alreja, Deepak Kumar Mishra, K.S. Sengar,Amool R. Singh and S. Chaudhury, pages 178-179.
The SIS test was administered to 30 medical practitioners in the age range of 25-45 years. The profile has revealed that the medical practitioners have fair imaginative capacity, functioning intelligence, good interpersonal relationship, psychological maturity, fair ego strength, adaptability and fair social conformity.
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