Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health: Volume 15, Number 2, July 2008 Editorial
|1. Editorial: Blending SIS Concepts in Treatment with Virtual Reality Technology, Wilfred A. Cassell, pages 91-94.
Severe psychological stress in childhood can set the stage for a variety of psychiatric disorders. In this journal a clinical case study entitled “The Mutilated Breast Syndrome” illustrates this phenomenon. It describes the use of the SIS-II in the psychotherapeutic treatment of a woman whose stress induced childhood psychobiological injuries subsequently surfaced symptomatically in adulthood as Obsessive-compulsive Disorder with Co morbid Major Depression.
In recent years the biological roots of this childhood phenomenon have been uncovered by multilevel scientific studies. Concerning the genetic level, it has been found (Caspi et al, 2003) that individuals with the s allele of the promoter region of the SERT gene (SLC 6A4) are particularly vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of early life stress (i.e. child abuse or neglect ). Consistent with the incremental potency of these genetic determinants, two copies of the s allele has been shown to increase this genetic vulnerability to latter life depression.
In a related fashion, it has been observed that severe stress has the capacity to trigger a variety of medical illnesses. For example, with regard to cardiovascular disease, stressors are approximately equal in toxic influence to long recognized predisposing biological factors such as cholesterol abnormalities, obesity, tobacco smoking etc.
Multiple studies have established primary pathophysiologic mechanisms mediating stress such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (Helm et al, 2000). A promising area of recent research has studied the deleterious effects of stress on the immune system (Miller & Raison, 2008). Research related to the pharmacological action of psychotropic drugs, continues to uncover an ever expanding sea of stress mediating neurotransmitters related to serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems as well as many others.
What appears to be the essence of the extensive work in the field are the following considerations: (1) Genetic vulnerability (2) Childhood stress sets the “Thermostat” in the brain for a higher level of baseline neurophysiological activity (3) When stressed, the subsequent increased level of arousal reaches much higher levels, than control subjects lacking a developmentally injured psychobiological system (4) The immune system may be involved (5) Multiple neurotransmitters mediate effects. As drug manufactures target specific genetic defects in neurochemical transmission, clinicians may expect a tremendous growth in new and hopefully more effective treatment agents. These should make the outlook much more positive for managing a wide range of psychiatric conditions.
Yet to date, when psychopharmacological efficacy has been examined in the harsh scientific light of placebo controlled clinical investigation, what has emerged from the double blind statistical analyses has been sobering. For example, with regard to treatment outcome in depression, the rate of remission in acute monotherapy trials with SSRIs and SNRIs has been lower than predicted (ranging from 28% to 45%) (Trivedi et al 2006). Moreover, most treated patients with depression still suffer from residual symptoms and 10-20 % is refractory to all conventional therapeutic modalities currently available, including electroconvulsive treatment (Miller & Raison, 2008).
Consequently there continues to be an important place for combining medication management with SIS image assisted Cognitive Psychotherapy. Realistically such therapeutic attempts may sometimes seem like swimming upstream against the strong overriding pathophysiologic currents, because stress based memories are so indelibly recorded in the brain.. Of the various psychotherapeutic forms, perhaps the most comprehensively scrutinized under carefully controlled conditions has been Cognitive Psychotherapy.
In sharp contrast, while this journal has reviewed the use of SIS technology as a promising treatment aide in a variety of psychiatric conditions, there have been no comprehensive attempts to implement a statistically based outcome study. This is surely needed. Without this, it is likely that our innovative pioneering efforts will be assigned the backwaters of psychiatric treatment history. Our ongoing lack of sufficient research funding continues to contribute to this deficiency.
With regard to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the SIS may have already been bypassed by the image generating projective power of interactive virtual reality. Currently the United States Department of Defense has funded a major program in assessing the treatment virtues of virtual-reality programs.
The initial groundwork for this was laid in 1997, twenty years after the Vietnam War (Halpern, 2008). It did not involve “Ambiguous Inkblots '' like the SIS, but rather a contrived Virtual Reality combat situation mimicking battle stress. In the initial pilot study, ten veterans with long-term PTSD that had not responded to previous therapeutic interventions participated for a period of one to two months duration. All showed improvement initially and in a one year follow-up appraisal. Such exposure therapy or immersion therapy is designed to “Habituate” or “Recondition '' the deranged neural networks in the brain. Theoretically it disconnects the cognitive aspect of PTSD memory from the stress related affect and underlying pathophysiologic memory processes.
Similar methodological principles apply for the use of the SIS-II video and computer monitor versions. However with the current SIS system, selecting the stressful imagery or response rated as “Most disliked” out of the 62 test items has conceptual advantages. It facilitates a sharper focusing on the traumatic memories . This sets the stage for their immediate desensitization by floral imagery..Conceptually, bringing this anxiety-charged imagery into visual focus at a psychological level, concurrently activates the pathophysiological processes underlying stressful memories. In this time sequence, the neurochemicals associated with the “After Image” are likely most vulnerable to being washed out by reconditioning ones released by calming nature scenes. This simultaneous temporal association facilitates the reconditioning of the brain.
The importance of selecting the most threatening SIS imagery for therapeutic processing has a supporting and relevant background. One example of the investigated constructs in the conceptual model concerns neuroimaging research, regarding anxiety disrupted patterns of “vigilance for threat” (1-4).It appears that the underlying mechanisms may be anatomically based in a neural circuit that includes the amygdala and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Bradley et al, 1999, Mogg et al, 1995, Mogg et al, 2000, Monk et al, 2006). Relevant to the use of ambiguous visual input, as a research technique analogous to projective stimulation with the SIS, are investigations using masked threatening faces (Armory 2005, Rauch, 2000, Monk et al 2008).
Recently I have been experimenting with a new series of image generating stimuli designed to activate specific real life traumatic situations giving rise to stress based memories. This experimental SIS series begins with alcohol and street drugs scenes replicating chemically addictive ways that PTSD victims self medicate in order to obtain relief from their disturbing recurrent imagery. Subsequently the series is heavily loaded with scenes relevant to law enforcement and military stress. The last few ambiguous “pictures” depict explosions. The final one is a portrayal of a military tank firing.
Unlike USA government funded research use of virtual reality, the SIS technique attempts to identify the specific stimulus which most accurately brought to mind the earlier stressful memories (e.g. Imagery evoked by SIS 27A in the “Mutilated Breast Syndrome” article on page INSERT PAGE NUMBER). Designing a custom made visual program, then enables the operator to therapeutically work with this by repetitively following the most threatening imagery with relaxing brain reconditioning nature scenes. Perhaps this ongoing and evolving approach may reflect a step forward in computer controlled SIS treatment.
Future plans call for blending current SIS theoretical concepts and technology with patient/client specific stress replicating virtual reality image generating interactive machines. If appropriate research funding is obtained, the new technology will incorporate as projective stimuli various additional sensory input modalities. Perhaps then, the diagnostic applications of the SIS might be surpassed by the blended system’s therapeutic potential.
Wilfred A Cassell, M.D., FAPA, APC. Director, SIS Center, Anchorage, Alaska (USA).
2. Presidential Address: SIS as a Therapeutic Time Machine for the 21st Century : Presented in the 6th International Conference of Somatic Inkblot Society, held at Ranchi Institute of Neuro Psychiatry and Applied Sciences, Kanke, Ranchi (India), Feb. 9-11,2008, B.L.Dubey, pages 95-102.
This conference becomes more important because it is being held at one of the two premium Institutes of Psychiatry and the largest Mental Hospital in India. The other important reason is to celebrate 100 years of the publication of Clinical Psychology Journal started by Lightner Witmer in 1907.
We welcome and thank you for attending this 2008 meeting of the SIS Society. Unfortunately Mary Cassell’s health again prevented Dr Cassell from attending. Although not physically present, he assured me that he continues to be with us in spirit. Prior to my leaving Alaska we discussed the history of the SIS in regard to it evolving into plans for transforming it into a projective form of robotic artificial intelligence. Let us begin this meeting by dedicating our communication style to high standards of objective evidence based investigation. Moreover we also give tribute to time honored methods of subjective introspection, such as illustrated by the masters of Yoga meditation. Look forward to an intellectual feast blending the optimal aspects of these two approaches.
I now invite you to shut your eyes and meditate with a reverence for the many mysteries of life. Imagine that we all are in an outdoor amphitheatre surrounded by beautiful fragrant flowers. Breathe deeply and slowly, letting tension flow out with each expiration. Feel your muscles relax. Let your mind free itself of all worldly tensions, negative thoughts and professional jealousies.
Now imagine a healing beam of positive spiritual energy transiently focusing on your forehead and gently passing into your brain. Experience it as a mysterious spiritual stream revitalizing you in body, mind and spirit. Sense it, erasing any residual inner world suffering empathetically acquired from past professional exposure to potentially toxic traumatic SIS imagery or other stressful life events. Recognize that like all life forms on this planet we are mere mortals and fragile. All of us exist in a time limited physical shell encompassing trillions of dancing inanimate atoms. Imagine that at this meditation these structural elements from all of us become transiently fused in an optimal energizing fashion. Visualize a loving dancing pattern maximizing the ability of participants to communicate during this important SIS meeting.
For a few private moments enjoy this inner world cleansing and bonding experience.At this time I would like to take this opportunity to express sincere appreciation for all who have contributed so much to our journal. I express my sincere appreciation to Prof. Amool R.Singh and his wife Archana Singh, Col. Prof. Suprakash Chaudhury, Dr.jai Prakash and Members Editorial Board for their untiring effort for timely publication of our Journal.
Now I would like to share our plans for the future. The various SIS systems may be conceptualized as an innovative form of artificial intelligence for activating projective images in consciousness. In the 21st century these original systems will be modified incorporating state of the art computer based internet technology. We plan to intellectually cross fertilize SIS concepts with those in the field of robotic artificial intelligence. Through modern engineering and electronics, the robotic offspring of this union likely will lead to many unforeseen applications in epidemiology, medicine, psychology, education and space travel. Perhaps it might be of historical interest to this society for me to review our background thinking regarding the value of a marriage between SIS electronic imaging technologies with those of artificial intelligence. According to the Wikipedia internet search engine the dawn of this now rapidly expanding field began in 1950 when Alan Turing built a machine designed to participate in human-like conversation. The next year a rudimentary chess playing program was written by Dietrich Prinz. Ultimately in 1997, reflecting the growth of knowledge in the field, the Deep Blue chess machine from IBM was able to beat the world chess champion, Garry Kasparov.
The term Al was introduced in 1956 by John McCarthy to mean “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines”. This preceded by three years Dr Cassell’s first clinical investigation on the “Body Image”, which led him to design inkblots with somatic color-form content. In order to initially evaluate their validity, he evaluated subjects with medical histories which included regionally specific somatic symptoms. Since this early work, several studies have supported the validity of this projective procedure.
In the early 1960’s Dr Cassell collaborated with George Stern, a professor of psychology at Syracuse University, whose room sized computer provided him an early machine form of artificial intelligence. Dr Stern had developed a machine scored questionnaire based program for assessing attitudes in a student population in excess of 5000. Wilfred included a medical history form for identifying subjects who experienced regionally specific psychophysiologic symptoms. One data analysis program that might be of interest to practitioners of Yoga was as follows: it was discovered that symptom based focusing of body awareness attention on outer areas (e.g. skin and skeletal muscle) was statistically correlated with symptom reduction on inner regions (e.g. heart and stomach). In 1964 he moved to Saskatchewan, Canada where he had computer access to the computer based medical records of a population of over a million. At that time, it was the most advanced electronic data processing system in the world. His research team completed several studies which consistent with the basic concepts of artificial intelligence in medicine and epidemiology.
Several years later he moved to Alaska. While doing a presentation on the original 20 Card form of the SIS at a meeting of the American Psychological Association in 1982, he came across a new opportunity. He met representatives of a computer company in Kansas City who were marketing a computer system called a Psycho meter for administering and scoring psychological tests such as the MMPI. The subject presented a series of questions and responded on a specially designed keyboard “Yes” or “No”. Upon completion of testing the computer was programmed to automatically compare answers with pre-programmed normative data. Results were immediately computed and made available in graphic fashion, along with statistically based diagnostic probability statements.Since the idea of artificial intelligence fascinated him, he purchased a Psycho meter for his clinical practice in Anchorage. It soon became apparent that many people preferred interacting with a computer, more than traditional paper and pencil tests. The system was portable so that it could be taken to a hospital room. Moreover it provided immediate clinically helpful data.
Consequently with the financial backing of an Alaskan bank, he set up a company in order to place a computer in Vancouver Canada, Portland Oregon and Honolulu Hawaii for non projective testing. His goal was to concurrently develop an electronic form of the SIS within this corporate structure beginning with video technology. His long term goal to eventually transfer the SIS electronic images to a computer robotic system. For a few years this plan appeared to be promising. However, he told me that he was naïve in regard to business. Consequently the upstart company ran into serious obstacles – legal, technical, and economic. An example of a legal problem follows: Without his knowledge, the government of British Columbia took funds from a test level psychologist position to pay for the Psycho meter. When the provincial psychological association learned of this, they threatened to sue his economically fragile company.
Concurrently technical advances in computers also paved the way for a number of more cost effective psychological assessments. Many clinicians were becoming computer literate using systems purchased at a fraction of the cost of Psycho meters ($25,000). Since this became general knowledge in computer circles, eventually Bill Gates in Seattle learned of this new revenue source. Microsoft then purchased the Kansas City Psychometer Company, along with the copyrights for lucrative tests such as the MMPI. These events led to the collapse of his original company. The resultant economic stresses caused the postponement of his plans.
Yet his vision for developing a cost effective clinically useful SIS robotic consultant continued to grow. We both invite members of our SIS Society to take up the challenge. During the meeting which follows I encourage you to consider this against the light of our many past SIS accomplishments. Envision incorporating in future projects computer based robotic technology related to image recognition and analysis. A few of the reasons that this should prove a promising course follow:
The procedure’s administration requires explanation of the risk/benefits by a licensed mental health professional but afterwards the subject interacts with the SIS “Robot” totally alone.
Initially the SIS ``Robot” provides auditory and visual sensory input to the participant’s brain. This process is conceptually analogous to that traditionally used in the induction phase by human hypnotists. The video and computer systems initial phase involves viewing beautiful floral photographs. These are accompanied by a soundtrack with suggestions to “Relax, take a few deep breaths and let your mind free itself etc”. This artificially induces a trance-like hypnotic mental state. During this mental defenses are bypassed mentally transporting the viewer to earlier life situations thereby releasing stressful memories. In this conceptual model, the robotic system functions in a manner that a science fiction writer would likely call a “Time Machine”.
Next for teaching purposes the “Robotic instructor” presents a visual-auditory segment, illustrating an example of a subject responding to an inkblot. In its present 1986 developmental state, the auditory input also includes instructions on how to write responses on an answer sheet having outlines of the 62 item SIS visual stimuli.. Theoretically this serves a similar purpose to hand writing records in traditional hypnotic trances. In clinical practice this affords the hypnotist the opportunity for the subsequent detailed analysis of otherwise verbally unreported subjective experiences during the trance. Frequently what is written reflects what the responder would prefer not to express directly to another human, because of concerns about social acceptability. In addition, in certain clinical conditions such as the Dissociative Disorders the writing may depict in disguised symbolic form perceptions and memories for which the subject is totally amnesic. A long standing goal of Wilfred’s has been to develop computer programs capable of replacing the paper answer sheet recording methodology.
After the state of altered awareness is artificially induced, the projective stimuli that were originally built into the SIS-II system are immediately electronically activated. Following each of the 62 stimuli, one of the original floral photograph series is repeated by the SIS “Robot” to neutralize any resultant emotional discomfort and to further deepen the trance. This is quite analogous to soothing suggestions that a human hypnotist might make under similar conditions of anxiety arousal. After the series there are presentation restorative nature scenes and sounds.
Upon completion of the viewing the subject rates what is seen and emotionally experienced on a scale by indicating the three “Most liked” images and the three “Least liked” ones. Usually the latter are of more clinical significance. In 1991 it was first learned that sometimes these can reflect an emergence from memory storage of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) dream imagery. In this sense the system was found to operate in a fashion, which the Alaskan Native people would refer to as a robotic “Dream Catcher”. Perhaps you may recall from our journal that the first case involved a law enforcement officer. He was able to reprocess a stressful accident scene witnessed fifteen years earlier. He found that rethinking what happened removed from the original stressful conditions clarified old confusing thoughts and released pent up emotions. He reported that he benefited just from the viewing opportunity without professional intervention. In this way the SIS “Robot” functioned like a human cognitive psychotherapist.
Since calming nature scenes and relaxing music are presented immediately during the afterglow of released PTSD imagery for psychophysiological reconditioning, the system can also act like a robotic behavioral psychotherapist. Repeated viewing under gradually lowering levels of arousal can reduce the hyperactivity habitually triggered by cues reminiscent of the original stressful events. The clinician may elect to repeat the series until gradual extinction of abnormal responses underlying psychophysiologic somatic symptoms (e.g. “Palpitations '') occurs. This is cost effective since the administrator need not be present during repeated viewing sessions.
Developing Future SIS Technology: The present 1986 series of 62 images provides a powerful visual stimulus series for activating from memory storage PTSD imagery. However, it was not designed originally to do so. As previously indicated, this was an original clinical finding in evaluating a traumatized law enforcement officer. Given this unpredicted observation as well as years of clinical experience in stressed subjects, it seemed logical to take a further step. This involved designing an additional series with a specific structure relative to stressful events that Dr Cassell labeled “Memories”.These images were recorded in a DVD mode in order to incorporate the additional benefits of computer monitor technology. The series begins with pictorial content related to common chemical dependency problems. It moves on to include early childhood traumatic scenes involving adults. Other structured “Inkblot” content portrays a variety of stressful memories - including those related to sex and violence. Consistent with the latter, the DVD ends with ambiguous scenes suggestive of a military tank, explosions and human bodies burning etc… etc…
Prior to the debriefing session, the computer system enables the administrator to review the released responses. The trained clinician can then intelligently select those released projective PTSD images previously judged to be most etiologically relevant. Subsequently on the basis of the evoked projective data, this enables the design of a custom made and time efficient treatment plan. Just as the video technique, this necessarily involves psychotherapy and brain reconditioning with relaxing nature scenes. Sometimes psychotropic medication may be included in the treatment plan. (Possibly relevant to this are animal research studies. These suggest that the administration of propranolol during exposure to stress may alter the chemical processes related to memory storage. Future brain scientists might consider stimulating with “Memories '' the release of PTSD neurochemicals for chemical assay. Conceivably this might set the stage neutralizing their toxicity with newly designed propranolol like psychopharmacologic agents.)
Warning! There is an occupational hazard! Like all versions of the traumatic memory releasing SIS - but even much more so - this exposes the sensitive psychotherapist to “Empathetic” or “Secondary” PTSD.
Futuristic SIS Technology: Scientific and technological advances are rapidly expanding the human potential for living on nearby planets. Developments in DNA alteration are enabling some geneticists to predict the future in almost a science fiction fashion. One such futuristic fantasy recently outlined in a popular science magazine might be briefly considered. The author’s fantastic plan involved genetically redesigning and empowering the future astronaut’s nervous system. The second step involved repackaging the pulsating neural tissue in a modified body more suitable for space travel. Of course this prediction may seem mind boggling.
Wilfred and I challenge you to redesign our SIS projective technology as robotic aides for futuristic endeavors .There is a common link between our projective field and such futuristic genetically related body-mind predictions. In a more realistic fashion, the hypnotically introduced semi structured visual stimuli can alter neural activity. Even in its original 1986 primitive state, the SIS robot can activate from memory storage several different types of imagery. These can stimulate recalling real life visual scenes, imagined or fantasized mental pictures, night time dreams, day time visual PTSD flashbacks, visual hallucinations from mental disorders, toxic alcohol or drug induced psychotic states and so on.
In clinical situations, it has been shown in repeated case studies how this activation can have both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Theoretically it also could have values in space research. For example, in spite of interviews and standard psychological testing, American astronauts have manifested troubling problems. Recall the media stories in 2007 of a violent love triangle in one instance. In another, members scheduled for a flight showed up intoxicated. Unfortunately in the United States, where concern about personal freedom frequently trumps safety and public health issues, SIS screening is bypassed. Yet I have personally found this SIS application highly useful in Indian industrial settings - and still ethical.
Because of its electronic form, the SIS may be transmitted millions of miles through space. This could enable the earth SIS trained ground coordinator to evaluate and if need be to alter the genetically redesigned astronauts’ body-mind functions. Imagine the possible benefits this individual could somehow apply the historic knowledge of Yoga meditation enriched by futuristic SIS robotic technology. Consider the possible benefits of slowing down vital physiological functions of respiration and heart rate for a long space voyage. Conceivably this might enable the DNA modified “Human?” physiological package to hibernate - like a brown bear during a long Alaskan winter. The present video and computer monitor versions of the SIS only utilize visual and auditory input. I invite you to imagine future systems evolving into a humanoid appearing mobile robot with language recognition capabilities. Imagine the value of supplementing visual stimulation with additional forms of sensory input such as touch and smell.
For example in regard to the latter, the sense of smell is connected neurologically to the neural centers related to emotions. As a projective source of stimulation, this sensory input could have unforeseen clinical applications. In evaluating psychotics, many suffering from Schizophrenic Disorder have olfactory hallucinations, yet this clinical information is frequently overlooked. Adding this component to robotic stimulating technology also could serve to place the therapeutic field of Aromatherapy on a more discriminating and scientific basis.
I hope that all in attendance consider taking up such technologically feasible futuristic challenges. We live in an ever changing world. The only constant appears to be the persistence of change itself. Let us avoid being stimulus bound like the archaic Rorschach. While innovative and giant steps forward, please do not become “Locked in stone” with any of the present forms of the SIS. Conceptually move towards incorporating SIS multiple sensory stimulating techniques with ongoing developments in robotic intelligence.
We also hope in future, the beneficial effects of SIS would be available to the patients residing anywhere in the world through Tele-therapy. A therapist while sitting in his clinic in another part of the world can still provide therapeutic aid to such a person through this modern technology. Such a network will help us in sharing human sufferings in different cultures and further searching for a way to improve human lives. Thank you for your help and support.
3. The Mutilated Breast Syndrome” -SIS Augmentation of Psychotherapy in Postpartum Onset OCD, Walter A. Case and Bankey L. Dubey, pages 103-112.
The Somatic Inkblot Series- II was administered to OCD patients as an aide in cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. Content analysis of SIS projected symbolic imagery was able to bring to the surface long-forgotten, unresolved stressors. The SIS could stimulate in memory long forgotten posttraumatic dreams and provide clinically relevant information for treatment plans. The SIS therapeutic intervention can be implemented to undermine linked irrational obsessions and thereby reduce compulsive behaviors.
4. Characteristics of Subjects Who Perceive Female Figure on Card VII of Rorschach Test, S.K. Singh, R. K. Singh, D. K.Singh and jai Prakash, pages 113-117.
With the focus of Rorschach shifting from being a qualitative to a quantitative instrument, the emphasis on a specific content changed from content having a specific meaning to its belongingness to a cluster of related contents. The current research investigation is intended to determine whether there are significant differences in personality style, as measured by Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire Form-B (Hindi Adaptation), between people who give an adult female as a response to card VII and those who do not. One hundred (N=100) normal subjects, in the age range of 21-45 yrs of either sex, with minimum education up to 10 th class and who has given consent to take the test, were included in the study. General Health Questionnaire-12 items, Rorschach InkBlot (Beck’s system) and Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-Form B (Hindi Adaptation), were administered individually. Findings of the study showed that both groups differed significantly on four factors (Factor –A, H, N and Q3) out of sixteen bipolar personality factors. . It is apparent from the result that the subjects who perceived female content were warm hearted, participating, socially bold, spontaneous, shrewd, calculating, controlled, socially precise and following self image. Present research findings also reveals that inability to report female content on card VII seems to be related to social discomfort, dependency needs, passivity, introversion and social anxiety.
5. Diagnostic Efficiency of New Rorschach Depression Index (DEPI), Lissy George and Ranjeet Kumar, pages 118-127.
The Rorschach Comprehensive System (Exner) included a number of empirically derived constellations (such as DEPI) aimed at the identification of Depression. The Depression Index was validated by various researchers. However, a few independent studies on the diagnostic efficiency of the Depression Index have also suggested diverse results. The earlier studies have pointed out the need to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the Depression Index. Taking these lacunae into account, the present study examined the diagnostic efficiency of the new version of the Rorschach comprehensive system’s Depression Index. Patients with the diagnosis of recurrent depression (N-30) as per the ICD-10 criteria and 30 normal healthy controls from the general population were assessed on Rorschach. Results indicate that patients with depression scored more on Depression Index with high specificity and low sensitivity.
6. Personality Differences Between Treated and Non Treated Charas Addicts Vandana Sharma, Awadhesh Upadhyay and M.G. Sharma, pages 128-133.
The study was undertaken to ascertain personality characteristics of treated and non-treated charas addicts using projective technique of personality assessment. Fifty treated and 50 non-treated charas addicts from Varanasi (India) formed the sample of the study. Three groups were matched on age (25 to 50 years with a mean age of 25.45 years). Seven cards of T.A.T. (Indian adaptation) 1, 3BM, 4, 6 BM, 7 BM, 13 MF and 16 were used to ascertain personality characteristics on the five selected dimensions viz: form, need, subjective state and feelings, press and interpersonal relations. Results indicated that the characteristics associated with treated addicts are happiness, superior cordial relations, language, organization, emotional tone, imagination, dominance, achievement, counteraction, affiliation and sex capacity whereas the characteristics associated with non-treated addicts are cognizance, aggression, rejection, autonomy, passivity, harm avoidance, acquisition, anxiety, inferiority, guilt and dejection.
7. Rorschach Profile of Neurotic Patients. Shakti Mishra and M.P.Gupta, pages 134-144.
The present study was conducted on 71 Neurotic cases taken from a private psychiatric hospital in Lucknow. The Rorschach test was administered following Beck’s method. The findings reveal that patients tend to give R between 11 to 20 and the location (D,Dd and S) depends on the number of responses. They give more F and a low number of C,M and Shading responses. They rejected the cards but not frequently with constricted contents. Gender has no bearing on the Rorschach psychogram.
8. Effect of School Environments on SIS-II Percepts, Umed Singh and Naseeb Singh, pages 145-151.
The present study was conducted to examine the impact of the environment on the responses of Somatic Inkblots Images of two different school systems: the Government Schools and Gurukuls system in Haryana state (India). Two hundred male students (100 from government school and 100 from Gurukul System), matched with academic grade were randomly selected for the study. They were administered Somatic Inkblot Series (SIS-II) Booklet Form individually. The means, standard deviations and t-ratios were computed to compare the two groups. Obtained t-ratios have revealed significant mean differences in some of the SIS-II response patterns. Gurkul students obtained significantly high score on Movement responses, Atypical responses, Rejection of images, Pathological Anatomy scale, Depression scale, and Paranoia scale and low on Typical responses of Somatic Inkblots Images than the students of Government Schools.
9. Psychological Defenses Used By the Substance Dependents, Nawab A. Khan, Masroor Jahan, Amool R. Singh and K.S. Sengar, pages 152-156.
The self is the integrating core of personality and any threat to self is a threat to an individual's existence. Consequently, various defense mechanisms are gradually learned for protecting the self. The present study was conducted to find out the psychological defenses used by the substance dependents to defend themselves. For this purpose, 30 substance dependents and 30 normal controls were selected through purposive sampling technique and Defense Mechanism Inventory was administered individually. t-test was used to find the differences in two groups. Results showed significant difference in psychological defenses used by the substance dependents and normal control group.
10. SIS –II Profile of Alcohol Dependence Patients, Jay K. Ranjan, Anju Kumari, Dolly Kumari, Jai Prakash, and K.S.Sengar, pages 157-162.
Somatic Inkblot Series (SIS) has become an effective projective tool for the assessment of the patient suffering from various mental health problems and general population as well. Alcohol dependence is one of the major problems which have drawn the attention of society and mental health professionals all over the world. The present study aims to assess the profile of alcohol dependents using SIS-II. Thirty (30) male alcohol dependent inpatients from Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS), Ranchi, India; were administered the Somatic Inkblot Series Booklet Version (IS-II) and compared with 30 normal controls. Result reveals significant differences in Atypical, Most Typical, Typical, Sex, Anatomy, Depression and Movement responses of the alcohol dependents and normal subjects.
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