Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health: Volume 11, Number 2, July 2004 Editorial
|1. Editorial: SIS Lessons; Wilfred A.Cassell, SIS Center, Anchorage (USA) pages 73-74.
We live in an ever more dangerous and fragmented world. Authoritarian based ideologies too frequently clash with scientific based reality. Vast sums are internationally squandered on defense and military budgets. Throughout the ages astronomical numbers of individuals have been traumatized by war.
Our SIS society has a responsibility in preparing future world leaders. Early in education students can be shown how the mechanism of projection can shape and sometimes even drastically distort their subjective impressions. They might become less vulnerable to demagogic religious and political leaders who as a rationalization for aggression promote projecting negative characteristics onto others.
Selected SIS images may also be introduced in classrooms as an aide for educating students about individual differences in cognition and emotion. This educational aide could foster greater confidence in accepting the validity of their own views, while simultaneously fostering respect for opinions of others.
This projective lesson might well be introduced in the morning schedule when many will still be marginally conscious of affecting charged dreams. The day residual of these will still be intruding upon awareness and disrupting their ability to focus on traditional classroom work.
Sometimes teachers refer these to clinicians who misdiagnose such concentration problems as symptoms of so-called Attention Deficit Disorder. In this poorly understood syndrome, difficulty in assessment is compounded by a student’s reluctance to share such emotionally painful imagery. Also, memories of their traumatic dreams may largely be blocked from conscious recall.
Clearly it is not the role of the teacher to therapeutically process this material. However, superficially discussing morning SIS responses will publicly identify the student’s inner world as an important dimension of psyche life.
Of course, there will be resistance to this educational approach. There is substantial controversy regarding the validity and reliability of projective response assessment measures, as well as the significance of dreams. Consequently, educators might make a few introductory comments about the history of knowledge in these fields as in the following suggested language:
“Early humans knew little about their biological and psychological natures. While we now know much more in these areas, we still live in a world with many unknowns. Most subjects taught in school are based on relatively solid factual information. However, sometimes you may be exposed to softer areas of study that are more illusive, less scientifically substantiated – but highly interesting!
Scientists generally prefer to move from the known to the peripheries of knowledge. Sometimes, such as in inkblot and dream research, curious investigators may even attempt to explore mysterious aspects of our inner lives and perceptions. As humans we are physically encased in a fragile body. Our physical abode is ever changing. These changes can sometimes cause adjustment problems. Perhaps some of you currently may be experiencing these as you adjust to puberty and adolescence. Later in life there are other potentially stressful changes as the body passes through the various passages of the human life cycle prior to death.
A few fortunate members of this class some of which after completion of their university training may become behavioral scientists. They will have the opportunity to explore the many remaining puzzling life questions. Some may be able to be involved in fascinating research concerning what influences how we think and feel, like in this morning’s lesson.
Please be curious concerning what the inkblots remind you of and how they make you feel. Then write the number of each SIS inkblot and your responses. You may keep these private, or later share them with others. As you participate in this mental exercise, portions of your brain will be activated. Memories could be aroused of your past outer world, as well as your inner life of imagery and dreams.”
Next the class will be shown selected socially acceptable SIS images (i.e. nonsexual) in one of the various forms available. After the teacher has again reassured them about their right to privacy, a general discussion on their response styles may follow.
Next two students will be asked to come forward for role-playing. One will be assigned the stage part of a professional interviewer; the other the client/patient in the manner of a psychodrama. These volunteers can read from various clinical transcripts from the SIS literature. A classroom scene could be acted out reenacting a professional interview examining SIS responses of a law enforcement officer or military combatant suffering from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder etc. After this example, the teacher might lead them to examine how certain stressful life events and occupations make for vulnerability to traumatic dreams and health problems.
The instructor would be well advised to end the discussion by showing the debriefing session in the SIS-II video and computer monitor versions. The overall discussion might well include reference to the hypnotic relaxing flowers and their healing significance. Other techniques such as Yoga and related forms of meditation might also be introduced to put the SIS technology in intellectual context historically.
In such a SIS lesson, educators could establish in each student’s mind the importance of accepting a reverence for their subjective inner world experiences and a life long empathy for others.
2. Substance Dependence, General Mental Health and Somatization Responses: A Study of Ganja Smokers, Tobacco Smokers and Non- Smokers: Jayanti Basu, and Rahul Nandy, Calcutta University, Kolkata 700009. E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org, pages 75-84.
The study compared thirty male Ganja (cannabis) dependent, thirty tobacco dependent and thirty non-smoker adults of Kolkata. They were individually administered the General Health Questionnaire – 28 and SIS-I . Results indicated that the non-smokers had the least general mental distress as well as the highest scores on the positive indices on SIS-I. Among the negative indices however, the non-smoker group also scored high in Animal, Anatomy and Sex responses. They scored the lowest in two negative indices of mental health, namely, Atypical responses and Rejection of images. The Ganja and tobacco smokers shared some of the somatization responses. However the tobacco smoker group could utilize the social resources to a greater extent than the Ganja smokers. The results have been explained in terms of the intrinsic nature of the two drugs as well as with reference to the legal and social acceptability status of Ganja and tobacco as agents of dependence.
3.Special Scores of Rorschach Comprehensive System in Schizophrenia and Mania : A Comparative Study: Ranjeet Kumar, E-mail: email@example.com, and C.R.J. Khess, CIP, Kanke, Ranchi, pages 85-90.
Exner’s comprehensive system (CS), unlike the previous scoring systems of Rorschach, developed Schizophrenia Index (SCZI; consisting of empirically derived six special scores) to capture the thought disorder and inaccurate perception thereby aiding the diagnosis of schizophrenia. However, earlier studies had pointed to the need to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of these six special scores of the CS in various psychotic conditions to overcome diagnostic problems. The specificity of SCZI for the diagnosis of schizophrenia needs further exploration in as much as thought disorder and inaccurate perception are also found in other psychotic disorders especially, mania. Taking these lacunae into account the present study examined the differential sensitivity of the special scores of SCZI in discriminating schizophrenia and mania. Patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and mania ( N=30 in each diagnostic group) as per the ICD-10 criteria were assessed on Rorschach for the six SCZI indices. Results indicated that deviant responses were high in manic patients, whereas contamination and incongruous responses were found more in schizophrenic patients.
4. A Comparative Study of SIS-I Indices Between Schizophrenic and Manic Patients S. Kumar, R.Singh, and Sandhya Mohanty, Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Agra- 282002 (India) Email : firstname.lastname@example.org, pages 91-94.
SIS is a powerful projective instrument and able to discriminate between varieties of psychiatric population. The present study is an extension of earlier work comparing schizophrenics and manic patients on Somatic Inkblot Series-I indices. The sample consisted of 30 schizophrenic and 30 manic patients drawn from Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Agra. A control group of 30 participants was also included for comparison. One-way ANOVA was computed with post hoc comparisons. The results indicated statistically significant differences across the groups.
5. A Nervous System Based Model for SIS Inkblot Projection and Consultation. Wilfred A. Cassell, & Bankey L. Dubey, E-mail: email@example.com, pages 95-104.
An SIS consultant can provide rapid and comprehensive diagnostic/therapeutic consultation to clinicians in various parts of the world. Relatively immediate consultative aid is readily available through modern electronic communication technology (e.g. FAX, e-mail etc.).This article outlines certain underlying neural mechanisms underlying inkblot projection in SIS consultation. For illustration purposes, it assesses the SIS-II Booklet responses of a 47-year-old man in treatment at the University Psychosomatic Clinic in Ulm, Germany. The projective assessment was done “Blind” with no direct access to the overall clinical records. When done in this manner, the interpretations and management recommendations are essentially unbiased. This gives a measure of additional validity to the SIS consultant’s “second opinion”.
The man was free of cardiac illness, yet was unduly concerned about his heart. In completing the brief health questionnaire on the last page of the Booklet, he indicated that his main concern was “heart trouble and pain.” In regard to the enquiry about mental problems in the questionnaire, he noted “depression and thoughts of suicide.”
6. Emotional Profile in the Context of Depression, Anxiety, Aggression & Adjustment of Epileptic & Non-Epileptic Adolescents: A Comparative Study, Nilanjana Sanyal and Priyanka Banerjee, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, pages 105-114.
This study was conducted on 40 epileptic adolescents (20 girls and 20 boys) and 40 normal controls matched on sex, age, religion, mother tongue and soico-economic status. The Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices and the Bender Gestalt Test were used as screening devices. The Indian adaptation of Bell’s Adjustment Inventory, the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study, the Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to assess and compare the personality correlates of epileptic and normal adolescents. The results revealed that epileptic adolescents were significantly more depressed and anxious as compared to their normal counterparts irrespective of the sex of the individual. Epileptic adolescents were also seen to have more externalized aggression and lower toleration of frustration as compared to their normal counterparts. Family, health, emotional and social adjustment of epileptics is also significantly poorer than that of the normal adolescents. However, an interaction effect was noted with regard to social adjustment – epileptic girls were seen to have poorer social adjustment as compared to the epileptic boys, but normal girls were seen to have better social adjustment than the normal boys. With regard to emotional adjustment, it was noted that girls had significantly poorer emotional adjustment than the boys.
7. Role of Somatic Inkblot Series in Psycho Sexual Disorders in India: Bankey L. Dubey, E-mail:email@example.com, Ajith, C., Somesh Gupta, and Bhushan Kumar, Professor and Head, Department of Dermatology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Edu. and Research, Chandigarh, pages 115-120.
Somatic Inkblot series –II Booklet form was used to assess 30 cases of Psycho Sexual Disorder. SIS images proved to have pulling power to bring out the inner cry of suffering patients, which they were not interested in sharing with others. The PSD subjects have shown normal productivity, keeping contact with reality, preoccupation with sexual imagery and more concern with body imagery. Psychotherapy along with sex education and medical intervention helped the patient to lead normal lives again.
8. SIS with Physically Disabled Adolescents, Ramjee Lal, Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, pages 121-123.
The present research makes an attempt to explore the differences in personality characteristics of physically disabled and normal adolescents with the help of Somatic Inkblot Series (SIS). SIS booklet was administered on a group of 25 physically disabled and 25 normal adolescents drawn from a Rehabilitation Center for Disabled at Jaunpur. The obtained protocols were scored on various response categories. Analysis of data revealed that disabled adolescents have poor interpersonal relationships, show social isolation tendencies, are psychologically immature, have poor self- image, poor ego strength, show thought blockage and inability to think properly. The responses given by disabled on a pathological scale reveal excessive concern about physical health, depressed emotional state, more hostility and aggression. They also experience exaggerated sense of self- consciousness in social situations.
9. Psychometric Evaluation of a Short Form of Holtzman Inkblot Technique. C.R. Darolia, and Hardeep Lal Joshi, E-mail: email@example.com, pages 124-132.
This study presents empirical evidence for the effectiveness of Herron’s short (30-inkblot) form of Holtzman Inkblot Technique. The data demonstrated fairly high internal consistency and temporal stability of most of the HIT variables. The internal consistency and temporal stability coefficient for most of the HIT indices were found to be larger than .60 and .70, respectively. Factor analysis of the 22 HIT variables yielded eight significant factors (eigen-values >1). The observed factor-structure replicated five of Holtzman's second-order factors with some minor variations. Overall, the findings suggest that the short form of HIT has psychometric invariance with the standard 45-inkblot form of HIT as far as the factor structure of the two forms are concerned. However, in view of the fact that the 45-inkblot form of the HIT has not been used in the present study, further empirical evidence is needed to demonstrate the psychometric compatibility of the two forms of the HIT.
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