Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health: Volume 8, Number 2, July 2001 Editorial
|1. EDITORIAL: PROJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES. Paul E. Panek, Ph.D., Academic Dean & Professor of Psychology, The Ohio State University at Newark, Newark Ohio 43055 (USA) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, pages 73-74.
I am pleased to have this opportunity to present my perspective on the issues and challenges projective psychology faces as we begin the new millennium. Projective psychology was conceived at the beginning of the past century, was developed and refined during the middle of the century, criticized in the latter part of the century, and is in a time of transition as we begin the new millennium. Based on the changes that have occurred in the area of projective psychology since the initial publication of the Rorschach in the 1920's, I see the following issues and challenges.
First, if projective techniques are to survive in the future, researchers will need to adequately demonstrate reliability and validity of the particular projective technique to satisfy our quantitatively oriented and skeptical colleagues. Specifically, Wood, Nezworski, and Stejskal (1996) and Lilienfeld, Wood, and Garb (2000) have recently attacked the bulwark of projective psychology, Exner's Comprehensive System for the Rorschach, by pointing out that, despite claims to the contrary, there is a lack of suitable validity, extant norms overpathologize normal subjects, and suitable norms for minority groups are not available. Thus, projective techniques that have acceptable levels of reliability, validity and standardization will survive and flourish, those, which do, not, will disappear from use. This point is clearly illustrated by observing the history of "drawing" projective techniques such as the Draw-A-Person-Test. Due to a lack of research support these techniques received substantial criticism, and are rarely reported in the literature.
Second, projective psychology needs to address cross-cultural differences as well as ethnic differences within cultures. As the world becomes smaller through advances in technology and transportation, and industries continue to become more "global," projective techniques must be able to adequately measure and explain potential cross-cultural and ethnic differences in scores or responses. Consequently, a specific score or response must be interpreted within the context of the culture or ethnic group, rather than an absolute standard. Hence, there is a need for projective techniques to develop norms for a variety of countries and ethnic groups within a particular country or culture.
Further, projective techniques must definitively confirm their utility or effectiveness in clinical and applied settings. Our colleagues in clinical or applied settings need to have confidence that projective techniques will measure or assess some relevant criteria for their particular need such as the presence or absence of psychosis, acting-out potential (workplace violence), etc. Therefore, projective techniques, which demonstrate sufficient utility or predictive validity, will increase in use in the future.
In addition, as we enter the new millennium it is now time for projective psychology to let go of the assumption that there is one "universal" projective technique that can measure all aspects and levels of personality or behavioral functioning. Thus, instead of rigidly adhering to the use of one particular projective technique for all clients or persons in all settings, we must either administer a battery of projective tests or select a specific projective technique which is considered to be an effective instrument for assessing the referral question. In projective psychology "one size does not fit all."
Finally, if projective techniques are to survive to the end this new millennium, those of us in projective psychology need to make our colleagues aware of the positive contributions that projective techniques can make to their particular area such as the assessment of treatment outcomes, prediction of behaviors, industrial selection, as well as personality assessment. This can be accomplished through rigorous systematic research and publication.
In conclusion, despite the criticisms directed at projective techniques during the latter part of the last century, they continue to enjoy widespread popularity among clinicians (Lilienfeld et al., 2000). Therefore, those of us in projective psychology must strive to empirically demonstrate the psychometric "soundness" and clinical utility of projective techniques during the new millennium.
2. OPTIMIZING SPIRITUAL HEALING BY ASSESSING DREAM AND SIS IMAGERY, Wilfred A. Cassell, Frank J. Ilardi, Alfred Collins, M. Mishra and B. L. Dubey, email@example.com, pages 75-94.
The paper demonstrates the application of Somatic Inkblot Series (SIS II Booklet). In the test Image 3A is in a monochromatic bluish gray color and the form is suggestive of a cross. For many devoted Christians this can stimulate spiritual imagery and affect consciousness, activating healing. The image significantly contrasts with many traditional artistic representations of Christ ‘s crucifixion, which are highly structured and leave little to the imagination. With abstract symbols, such as this SIS inkblot, there is an enhanced potential for the external visual stimulus to tap into the Dreamer’s deep inner well of divine spirituality. In employing this approach it must be remembered that different religions have their own unique symbols and rituals. SIS therapists must be open minded and unbiased in order to employ these for spiritual healing. It is not our role to change or convert any suffering individual’s religious orientation. Rather, we need to foster healing by optimally activating the person’s religious symbols in the therapy process. Those suffering should be encouraged to have reference for spirituality arising spontaneously through dream imagery for themselves and their loved ones.
3. FREE ASSOCIATION TO RORSCHACH RESPONSES AND CONTROL OF INTERNAL STATES. LISA C. MILNE AND PHILIP GREENWAY, Philip Greenway, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia 3168. EMAIL: Phillip.Greenway@Education.monash.edu.au, pages 95-106.
The present study examines the nature of the free associations subjects give to their own Rorschach responses. It was hypothesized that subjects who produced more positive associations to their Rorschach responses would differ in personality functioning from those who gave more negative associations. Subjects were 77 (37 males and 40 females) normal adults from Victoria, Australia. Overall, the results indicated that subjects who gave more positive than negative associations, tended firstly to report greater satisfaction with and control over their thoughts and feelings than those who gave more negative than positive associations and those who have an equal number of each. Secondly, they scored tended to score higher on the defenses: Rationalization, Altruism, humor, Idealization, and Acting Out. While subjects who gave more negative associations expressed less satisfaction with their control over thoughts and feelings and tended to use the defenses: Somatization, Passive-Aggression and Undoing more than subjects who gave more positive associations. The results provide preliminary support for the notion that associations to Rorschach responses can produce useful insights into a person’s conscious and unconscious functioning.
4. A NORMATIVE STUDY WITH PORTUGUESE CHILDREN AGED SIX TO TEN YEARS OLD. Danilo R. Silva, Rui Campos and Ana Monica Dias, Correspondence to: Danilo R. Silva, Alameda da Universidade,1649-013 Lisboa Portugal. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, pages 107-115.
Three hundred and forty four Portuguese children in the age range of 6-10 years were administered Rorschach test following Exner's method.The findings suggest that Portuguese children, in average, locate their responses predominantly in D, a few numbers of T responses a high Lambda and low form quality.The similarity and differences on Rorschach responses are discussed in the paper.
5. PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT, PROJECTIVE METHODS AND A TRIPTYCH PERSPECTIVE. Ann M. O’Roark, St. Petersburg, (USA) E-mail: AnnMORoark@aol.com, pages 116-126.
The paper deals with various application potentials of projective devices. Since projective tests are versatile tools in both mental health and in development work, they can be used with clinical and non-clinical populations to establish a starting point for an intervention. Projective tests are likely to become more widely used when they are recognized as process facilitators for dialogue sessions, and when clients responses can be analysed using checklists that include direct links to other types of assessment information.
6. PERSONALITY PROFILE AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN A TELEPHONE CABLE COMPANY, Bankey L. Dubey, Anil Agrawal & R. S. Palia, Email: email@example.com , pages 127-134.
Myers Briggs Type Indicators and Somatic Inkblot Series Tests were administered to 90 Executives of a private organization. Both the tests were administered in a group of 10 executives. Standard procedures of administration, scoring and interpretation were followed. The MBTI profile reveals that the majority of the executives (60% ) showed an ESTJ profile followed by 13 % ISTJ . 86% belonged to the Thinkers group and 12 % to the Feelers group. Extroverts were 78% and introverts were 20%. There were 80% belonging to Sensing group and 18% to Intuitive group. Judgmental were 96% and the Perception group only 2%. A CEO belonging to the INTJ category headed the Unit.
The Somatic Inkblot Series -Video profile reveals that they were supported by good ego strength, healthy interpersonal relationship, no erotic disturbances, controlled hostility and aggression, high team building concept, good human relationship, and keeping touch with reality. Two executives showed unhealthy profile suggesting disturbed sexual relations, poor ego strength and to an extent neurotic profiles.
The HRD intervention was planned in a meeting with top executives and the group was taken to a Forest Resort for two days. They got the opportunity to express their feelings while having cocktails and dinner in a more soothing natural environment. They came out with a lot of innovative ideas. The second day they were asked to work in groups of the area of their routine work/ specialization and instructed to prepare short-term realistic targets to increase the productivity of the organization. They were to work on the assumption that every person can help tremendously from his capacity as individual contributors in the organization and can prove to be the champions.
Training programs on " Understanding Self and Others, Promoting Values and Team Building '' with regular meetings of the entire workforce was done. The organization showed significant improvement. The findings of the study are discussed in the presentation.
7. MENTAL HEALTH DURING WAR: AN EXPERIENCE AND LESSON FROM THE PAST. A. R. Singh, K. R. Banerjee and S. Chaudhury, RINPAS, Kanke, Ranchi-834006, pages 135-140.
The mounting tension among various countries is alarming and poses a threat of nuclear war in future. The present study examines the trend of psychiatric disorders among military personnel during war who served in the United Nations peacekeeping force in Congo. The incidence of psychiatric disorders was significantly more in young, inexperienced individuals with relatively short length of service, who had not seen or participated in war-like conditions. The future perspective in context of the threat of nuclear war has also been discussed.
8. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC VALUE OF SIS – II TEST. M.P.Singh and Nalini Mishra, pages 141-142.
The Somatic Inkblot Series – II was administered to a 20-year-old male student of graduate level who had a history of masturbation for the last 3 years with a frequency of at least once a day. Because of this habit he developed guilt feelings and had a fear of failure. He got familiar with a female classmate but never had a physical relationship with her. He developed symptoms of withdrawal, avoiding meeting people, lack of interest in study, feeling of insecurity and odd thinking to commit suicide. He was given re-educative psychotherapy to channel his energy to academic activities. The result was very positive and the subject showed significant improvement. His suicidal ideation has gone and he has developed a positive attitude towards life. The case in detail has been discussed in the paper.
9. ALOPECIA AREATA: EVALUATION USING PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS AND THE SOMATIC INKBLOT TEST. S. Chaudhury, M.S.V.K. Raju, B.L.Dubey, T.R. John, S.K. Salujha and K Srivastava, pages 143-148.
Fifty consecutive patients with Alopecia Areata (AA) and an equal number of age and sex matched control subjects without any physical or psychiatric disorders were evaluated with psychiatric interview and mental status examination, Sinha’s Anxiety Scale, Carroll Rating scale for Depression, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale and the SIS-II. Analysis revealed that patients with AA were significantly more anxious and depressed, obtained significantly higher Alexithymia scores and reported significantly more Stressful Life Events as compared to controls. The Somatic Inkblot Series-II test revealed psychological disturbances in 52% patients.
10. PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN WITH PSYCHOSOMATIC SYMPTOMS: TWO CASE PRESENTATIONS. C. Coulacoglou, A.Tchinou and A. Michopoulou, Athens Greece E-Mail: Carina @hol,.gr, pages 149-152.
The Fairy Tale Test (FTT), the Somatic Inkblot Series (SIS) and the family drawing tests were administered to a 11 years old girl and 10 years old boy, to evaluate their personality and its relation with their body. The FTT revealed high ratings on Self-Esteem (T=14.6). Desire for Superiority (T=75.4), Aggression as Dominance (T=69), Aggression as Envy (T=72 and Need for Affection (T=84). The SIS images revealed poor interpersonal relationships, disturbed body imagery and psychosomatic symptoms. Their only common symptom was low Self-Esteem. The cases are presented in the paper.
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